Facts About Concussion and Brain Injury

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Facts about Concussion and Brain Injury: Where To Get Help

What Is a Concussion?

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury—or TBI—caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, creating chemical changes in the brain and sometimes stretching and damaging brain cells.

Concussions Are Serious

Medical providers may describe a concussion as a “mild” brain injury because concussions are usually not life-threatening. Even so, the effects of a concussion can be serious.

Because the brain is very complex, every brain injury is different. Some symptoms may appear right away, while others may not show up for days or weeks after the concussion. Sometimes the injury makes it hard for people to recognize or to admit that they are having problems.

The signs of concussion can be subtle. Early on, problems may be missed by patients, family members, and doctors. People may look fine even though they’re acting or feeling differently.

Because all brain injuries are different, so is concussion recovery. Most people with mild injuries recover fully, but it can take time. Some symptoms can last for days, weeks, or longer.

In general, recovery is slower in older persons. Also, persons who have had a concussion in the past may find that it takes longer to recover from their current injury.

This article explains what can happen after a concussion, how to get better, and where to go for more information and help when needed.


Medical Help

People with a concussion need to be seen by a doctor. While most are seen in an emergency department or a doctor’s office, some people must stay in the hospital overnight.

Your doctor may do a scan of your brain (such as a CT scan) or other tests. Other tests, known as “neuropsychological” or “neurocognitive” tests, assess your learning and memory skills, your ability to pay attention or concentrate, and how quickly you can think and solve problems. These tests can help your doctor identify the effects of a concussion. Even if the concussion doesn’t show up on these tests, you may still have a concussion.

Your doctor will send you home with important instructions to follow. Be sure to follow all of your doctor’s instructions carefully.

If you are taking medications—prescription, over-the-counter medicines, or “natural remedies”—or if you drink alcohol or take illicit drugs, tell your doctor. Also, tell your doctor if you are taking blood thinners (anticoagulant drugs), such as Coumadin and aspirin, because they can increase the chance of complications.


Danger Signs

In rare cases, a dangerous collection of blood (hematoma) may form on the brain after a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body that may squeeze the brain against the skull. Call 9-1-1 right away or contact your doctor or emergency department if you have one or more of the following danger signs after a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body:

  • One pupil larger than the other.
  • Drowsiness or inability to wake up.
  • A headache that gets worse and does not go away.
  • Slurred speech, weakness, numbness, or decreased coordination.
  • Repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures (shaking or twitching).
  • Unusual behavior, increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.
  • Loss of consciousness (passed out/knocked out). Even a brief loss of consciousness should be taken seriously.

Danger Signs — Children, Toddlers, and Infants

Take your child to the emergency department right away if the child has received a blow or jolt to the head and:

  • Any of the signs and symptoms listed in the Danger Signs & Symptoms of a Concussion list.
  • Will not stop crying and cannot be consoled.
  • Will not nurse or eat.

Symptoms of Brain Injury

“I just don’t feel like myself.”

Persons of All Ages

Most people with a concussion have one or more of the symptoms listed below and recover fully within days, weeks or a few months. But for some people, symptoms of concussion can last even longer. Generally, if you feel that “something is not quite right,” or if you are feeling “foggy,” you should talk with your doctor.

Concussion symptoms are often grouped into four categories, including:

  • Remembering and Thinking
    • Difficulty thinking clearly
    • Feeling slowed down
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Difficulty remembering new information
  • Physical
    • Headache
    • Nausea or vomiting (early on)
    • Balance problems
    • Dizziness
    • Fuzzy or blurry vision
    • Feeling tired, having no energy
    • Sensitivity to noise or light
  • Emotional/Mood
    • Irritability
    • Sadness
    • More emotional
    • Nervousness or anxiety
  • Sleep Disturbance
    • Sleeping more than usual
    • Sleeping less than usual
    • Trouble falling asleep

Some of these symptoms may appear right away, while others may not be noticed for days or months after the injury, or until the person starts resuming their everyday life and more demands are placed upon them. Sometimes, people do not recognize or admit that they are having problems. Others may not understand why they are having problems and what their problems really are, which can make them nervous and upset.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be difficult to sort out. Early on, problems may be missed by the person with the concussion, family members, or doctors. People may look fine even though they are acting or feeling differently.

Young Children

Very young children (i.e., infants, toddlers, and preschoolers) often bump and bruise their heads. This can happen as a result of motor vehicle crashes, falls, getting hit in the head with a ball or toy, or from tricycle/bike accidents. Sometimes these events can be serious and result in a concussion.

Young children can have the same symptoms of a concussion as older children, but it is harder for them to let others know how they are feeling. In addition to the symptoms mentioned on page 5, call your child’s doctor right away if your child seems to be getting worse or if you notice any of the following:

  • Crying more than usual
  • Headache that will not go away
  • Change in the way they play, perform or act at school
  • Change in nursing, eating, or sleeping patterns
  • Becoming easily upset or increased temper tantrums
  • Sad mood
  • Lack of interest in usual activities or favorite toys
  • Loss of new skills, such as toilet training
  • Loss of balance, unsteady walking
  • Poor attention

Older Adults

Because concussions are often missed or misdiagnosed among older adults, be especially alert if you know that an older adult has fallen or has a fall-related injury, such as a hip fracture. Older adults may have a higher risk of serious complications from a concussion, such as bleeding on the brain. Headaches that get worse or increased confusion are signs of this complication. If they occur, see a doctor right away. Older adults often take blood thinners; if they do, they should be seen immediately by a health care provider if they have a bump or blow to the head or body even if they do not have any of the symptoms listed above.


Getting Better

“Sometimes the best thing you can do is just rest and then try again later.”

Although most people recover fully after a concussion, how quickly they improve depends on many factors. These factors include how severe their concussion was, their age, how healthy they were before the concussion, and how they take care of themselves after the injury.

Some people who have had a concussion find that at first it is hard to do their daily activities, their job, to get along with everyone at home, or to relax. Ignoring your symptoms and trying to “tough it out” often makes symptoms worse.

Rest is very important after a concussion because it helps the brain to heal. You’ll need to be patient because healing takes time. Only when the symptoms have reduced significantly, in consultation with your doctor, should you slowly and gradually return to your daily activities, such as work or school. If your symptoms come back or you get new symptoms as you become more active, this is a sign that you are pushing yourself too hard. Stop these activities and take more time to rest and recover. As the days go by, you can expect to gradually feel better.

If you already had a medical condition at the time of your concussion (such as chronic headaches), it may take longer for you to recover from the concussion. Anxiety and depression may also make it harder to adjust to the symptoms of a concussion. While you are healing, you should be very careful to avoid doing anything that could cause a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body. On rare occasions, receiving another concussion before the brain has healed can result in brain swelling, permanent brain damage, and even death, particularly among children and teens.

After you have recovered from your concussion, you should protect yourself from having another one. People who have had repeated concussions may have serious long-term problems, including chronic difficulty with concentration, memory, headache, and occasionally, physical skills, such as keeping one’s balance.

Tips for Healing: Adults

Here are a few tips to help you get better:

  • Get plenty of sleep at night, and rest during the day.
  • Avoid activities that are physically demanding (e.g., heavy housecleaning, weightlifting/working-out) or require a lot of concentration (e.g., balancing your checkbook). They can make your symptoms worse and slow your recovery.
  • Avoid activities, such as contact or recreational sports, that could lead to a second concussion. (It is best to avoid roller coasters or other high-speed rides that can make your symptoms worse or even cause a concussion.)
  • When your doctor says you are well enough, return to your normal activities gradually, not all at once.
  • Because your ability to react may be slower after a concussion, ask your doctor when you can safely drive a car, ride a bike, or operate heavy equipment.
  • Talk with your doctor about when you can return to work. Ask about how you can help your employer understand what has happened to you.
  • Consider talking with your employer about returning to work gradually and about changing your work activities or schedule until you recover (e.g., work half-days).
  • Take only those drugs that your doctor has approved.
  • Do not drink alcoholic beverages until your doctor says you are well enough. Alcohol and other drugs may slow your recovery and put you at risk of further injury.
  • Write down the things that may be harder than usual for you to remember.
  • If you’re easily distracted, try to do one thing at a time. For example, don’t try to watch TV while fixing dinner.
  • Consult with family members or close friends when making important decisions.
  • Do not neglect your basic needs, such as eating well and getting enough rest.
  • Avoid sustained computer use, including computer/video games early in the recovery process.
  • Some people report that flying in airplanes makes their symptoms worse shortly after a concussion.

Tips for Healing: Children

Parents and caregivers of children who have had a concussion can help them recover by taking an active role in their recovery:

  • Having the child get plenty of rest. Keep a regular sleep schedule, including no late nights and no sleepovers.
  • Making sure the child avoids high-risk/ high-speed activities such as riding a bicycle, playing sports, or climbing playground equipment, roller coasters or rides that could result in a second bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body. Children should not return to these types of activities until the doctor says they are well enough.
  • Giving the child only those drugs that are approved by the pediatrician or family physician.
  • Talking with the doctor about when the child should return to school and other activities and how the parent or caregiver can help the child deal with the challenges that the child may face. For example, your child may need to spend fewer hours at school, rest often, or require more time to take tests.
  • Sharing information about concussion with parents, siblings, teachers, counselors, babysitters, coaches, and others who interact with the child helps them understand what has happened and how to meet the child’s needs.

Where to Get Help

Help for People with Concussion

“It was the first time in my life that I couldn’t depend on myself.”

There are many people who can help you and your family as you recover from a concussion. You do not have to do it alone.

Show this article to your doctor or health care provider and talk with them about your concerns. Ask your doctor about whether you need specialized treatment and about the availability of rehabilitation programs.

Your doctor can help you find a health care provider who has special training in treating concussion. Early treatment of symptoms by a specialist may speed recovery. Your doctor may refer you to a neuropsychologist, neurologist, or specialist in rehabilitation.

Keep talking with your doctor, family members, and loved ones about how you are feeling, both physically and emotionally. If you do not think you are getting better, tell your doctor.

For more information, see the resources listed below.

Help for Families and Caregivers

“My husband used to be so calm. But after his injury, he started to explode over the littlest things. He didn’t even know that he had changed.”

When someone close to you has a concussion or a more serious brain injury, it can be hard to know how best to help. They may say that they are “fine” but you can tell from how they are acting that something has changed.

If you notice that your family member or friend has symptoms of a concussion that are getting worse, talk to them and their doctor about getting help. They may need help if you can answer YES to any of the following questions:

  • Are any of the concussion symptoms substantially affecting their life activities (such as feeling restricted in their activities due to symptoms, performance in school or at work has changed, unhappy with life changes)?
  • Has their personality changed?
  • Do they get angry for no reason?
  • Do they get lost or easily confused?
  • Do they have more trouble than usual making decisions?

You might want to talk with people who share your experience. The Brain Injury Association of America can put you in contact with people who can help (listed in the resource section below).

Resources for Getting Help

“I thought I was all alone, but I’m not. There are lots of people out there who understand what I’ve been through.”

Several groups help people and their families deal with concussion and more serious brain injuries. They provide information and put people in touch with local resources, such as support groups, rehabilitation services, and a variety of health care professionals.

  • CDC’s Injury Center has created resources and conducts research to help prevent concussion and more serious brain injuries and improve outcomes for survivors. For more information contact CDC toll-free at 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636) or visit CDC’s Injury Center on the Web at www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury.
  • The Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) has a national network of many state affiliates and hundreds of local chapters and support groups across the country that provide help in your community.

    You can reach BIAA by calling the toll-free National Brain Injury Information Center at 1-800-444-6443.

    You can also get information through their website at www.biausa.org. Both the help line and the website can provide you with information about the BIAA affiliate closest to you.

  • The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) works to ensure that active duty military and veterans with brain injury receive the best evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. You can reach DVBIC by calling toll-free at 1-800-870-9244 or by visiting their website at www.dvbic.org.

    For more information about TBI in the military, including an interactive website for service members, veterans, and families and caregivers, please visit: www.TraumaticBrainInjuryatoz.org.

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. www.cdc.gov.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advice. The reader is advised to always seek the advice of a physician prior to changing any treatment or to receive answers to questions regarding a specific medical condition.

Posted on BrainLine November 17, 2017. Reviewed March 27, 2019.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advice. The reader is advised to always seek the advice of a physician prior to changing any treatment or to receive answers to questions regarding a specific medical condition.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017, July 6). Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from www.cdc.gov

Comments (423)

Hello I do not have a concussion although this site greatly helped me. I am a seasoned debater (very experienced) sorry I have to have and ego in debate. Sorry off topic, I am debating a topic that states- -Full contact football should be banned for students under age 18 (this topic is fake of course) this is moc debate if you will. After reading through multiple comments I have now been able to understand the effects concussions can have on a person. From what I can tell the long term effects of concussions can really change a persons life.  I am touched by the accounts of many I am begining to feel what all of you are going through. thank you so much for giving me an insight to how bad concussions really are. my prayers are with yall!
 

My 14 year old was play boxing with gloves yesterday with friends he's been having a head ache ever since

Can stress make the concussion symptoms worse?

Yes. Stress causes your brain to work harder and to send stronger signals. When I got my concussion, which I still have, I was going to school and taking finals. I would’ve gotten better sooner if I had stayed home and slept instead of putting myself through stressful situations. Crying, because of stress or for other reasons, can lead to dehydration, making your headaches worse.

I’d like to know this as well!

To the 16 year old who posted February 2017. GO TO A DOCTOR!

I'm 17 and I was hit to the back of my head in October 2016 and still having symptoms to my concussion. A lot of people noticed I've changed because I used to be so happy and energetic and always wanting to do fun things. Now I don't feel like being in school or outside my room it feels like I'm suffocating into a small hole and can't breathe or be myself I hate people. Now I feel like just someone being in same room as I am I wanna yell because I feel annoyed. I am diagnosed with PTSD, anxiety and depression. It's scary to even think or have thoughts like I do now. I wish I was myself and happy so I could graduate next year, excited for future events in my life but I just want a simple boring future now and it sucks to even want nothing for myself or anything from others. In may I'll be turning 18 and dealing with this traumatic stuff maybe for the rest of my life it will be a big nightmare that will never fade away.

You are experiencing exactly what my daughter has been dealing with for a long time. It's unfortunate how the medical community doesn't know what to do with long term concussion sufferers. One type of therapy that might have a positive affect for what you're dealing with is EMDR. It addresses the PTSD symptoms which also mimic Post Concussive Syndrome. Music helps my daughter and after being tested by a neuro psychologist she was able to get an IEP for school.
Don't give up. You will get better.

I have a concussion and this helped me.

Danger signs in children is "Change in Sexual Drive?" Really?

I fell recently and went to the ER tests showed no stroke but the symptoms come and then get better. It is frightening and great to know I'm not alone.

I am 16 years old and I play football. I suffered two back to back concussions. The first one I got popped in the head while running full speed down the field on a punt and got hit by a player on the opposing team, but it didn't feel like a normal hit.  I did not feel any pain in my head the whole game because I had a twisted ankle, on the bus ride back I was laughing and having fun, then about an hour or two after the game I started getting very severe headaches and extreme nausea. It was one of the most painful things I ever felt. I did not mention this to anybody because I went to sleep and woke up fine the next morning. The following week I was not in practice due to other injuries but decided to play in the game (because we had no other good o-lineman). This was a bad idea, that game I was in for every play. I am a guard on offense and we run many pulling plays which result in head to head contact. The average weight of the d-lineman on the other team was close to 300 pounds and I weigh 180. I did not feel any pain like in the previous game but I was getting very dizzy and I started to forget where I was, I was about to tell the trainer what I was feeling but then our starting center got injured and I decided to stay in. 2-3 hours after the game (which we lost) I felt the same pain from the previous week but 100 times worse. The sound of a tv in the other room was killing me and the room was pitch black but I was still sensitive to the light, I threw up 20-30 times in the toilet and then passed out without remembering. It has been a year since then and I don't feel like I have healed at all. I have never ending headaches and recently I have had uncontrolled outbursts over nothing. I have a hard time concentrating now and my memory is very much worse. Recently I have even had a loss of appetite and now I weigh 145 pounds. I don't know what to do anymore because my concussion has interfered with my school work now and I'm scared it will ruin my life. Is there anything that I can do to make the pain go away besides painkillers?

I got a concussion on Feb 17 2012. Because I was involved in a auto accident, I was seen at UCI Medical Center in Irvine, CA. They said there was "no evidence" of brain injury, and I was not given instructions to follow-up with my Dr. I did mention it to my Dr anyway, but he did not seem concerned and now, five years later, I am having memory issues 🙄

I understand what this guy is talking about. I feel the same way! I'm not sure when I got my first head injury. The first time I can put my finger on was when I was 4 yrs old. All I remember is waking up in a what I thought at the time was a space ship! But now I know it was just my a CT scan. Since then I have taken many blows to the head. On Dec.12 2016 I received 3 traumatic blow's (two on the top of my head and one on the back of my head). I went unconscious for last time. On Dec 28th I started remembering my life up to that point (this whole time other people didn't know anything was wrong with me unless I told them). Sometimes I feel almost back to normal then something changes and I get all mixed up again. My eyes and ears start going in and out and my body goes numb. I have learned to cope with it by wearing sunglasses and playing music in my ears. The music also helps me keep time. Although I'm learning to deal with my lasting side effects I sometimes get discouraged because I'm missing out on life! I have a lot to live for even though it is hard to remember that sometimes. I write a lot and take a lot of pictures so I can remember, and I have learned not to focus on negative things that way when I get down I can look back on memories that remind me why I have to keep going!

I know the feeling. Former Army Soldier. I broke my neck in January last year for the second time. I walked away didn't know anything was wrong for hours. I hit my head so hard I dented my skull. One year later still having trouble and my headphones still hurt! Memory everything.

I have had multiple concussions over the years from playing too hard, motorcycle racing, street racing accidents, stock car racing, figure 8 racing and just forgetting I have a head on my shoulders. I seem to hit it a lot. I have had 3 concussions just in the last year. Jan 2016 ran into a support beam in a basement. I got hit hard in turn 1 at a track. Don't remember that but I saw photos of the car. Two days later I got dizzy and fell into my truck. Once again my head did not make it in. Bled like a pig. I've noticed a change about half way through the year. I'm 57 now. Always been forgetful, now appears short term memory is gone. I'm at the point that I leave notes on my phone to tell me what day it is and what to do. Can't concentrate, can't figure out problems, get lost while driving. Confused, headaches, dizzy, depressed. I get anxiety attacks. Hard to breath sometimes. I feel like I'm getting worse instead of better. Only had 1 violent episode but directed it on the dinning room chairs. They wound up breaking a couple things in the living room. I'm suicidal, that's not new but think a lot more about it. Wife doesn't understand. May end in divorce. I feel I'm slipping away. I don't want dementia. I've seen it. I'm scared and no one understands what I go through on a daily basis.

If I may say...music of any kind relaxes the mind...for all what were all going through on here....really to everyone on here...classical music at night calms the brain......makes the best relaxer!!!

Many people have recovered from long term effects from a TBI, some don't. Researchers are trying to find a link as to why some recover and some do not. Some benefit from simple therapy. Based on the trauma you have had, I would look into it.

I find all of this fascinating. I'm researching latent brain function issues from trauma. I had my first major head trauma when I was about 16 when I was hit on the side of my head, by a person, and didn't fully lose consciousness, but 'saw stars' for a good while. When I was 19 a horse kicked me in the head, I was knocked out for about 5 mins, disoriented/confused, emotional, and ended up with 8 stitches just below the crown of my head. I'm pretty sure they only tooK x-rays back then (the late 80s, early 90s). By the time I was 25 I'd been in two major car wrecks, one of which rendered the car (and me) upside down & crawling out of a back window. ER sent me home. Fast forward to my 30s. I took up riding horses again, this time jumping. Always wearing a helmet, I received many blows to the head during falls. Most weren't a big deal, not even painful. The final one was bad. I came off after a jump, and I slammed the back of my head on the hard ground. It dented my helmet. (**I cannot say enough about wearing helMets to people who ride horses...and the adults who let their kids ride without - shame on you!!). I was knocked out for a min or two, got up talking (never remembered what I said to friends or talking to them). I didn't remember walking back to the barn. Waited a bit, then drove myself home. My mother fussed and forced me to go to ER the next morning. Scans all fine, sent home. Ok. So now I'm reading these articles on newer research and I realize, could I have a TBI? The last 10 years or so (I'm 49 now) I've noticed depth perception issues, I'm emotional to the point of annoying myself yet have periods where I show almost no affect at all. I get headaches, which vary in severity, but are mostly mild. I've had a full blown migraine 2-3 times ever and not recently. But I'm increasingly feeling like things aren't as they should be cognitively. It's hard to explain as there's nothing concrete to report. I've had some issues with work, which I never, ever had before now. I don't stay on top of tasks well and feel very lazy (the latter having been totally opposite of my personality in previous years). My question is, why should I bother with seeing a doctor? I feel as though they will just take another mri and report that all looks normal and send me home. Do I even need to follow up on this? I can't even make a decision about whether I want to or not. Am I being sent to the wrong doctors (ER)? I don't have a regular doctor, as I'm rarely hurt or ill now, but I don't even know what I'd say if I did see a doctor. Or if it's worth going through. (Lol, oh and I almost forgot my reason for writing this. I just hit my head again yesterday, accidentally, on a large, dense metal beam (I didn't see it). I have a lump, small dent, and it's very tender. I was disoriented for about 5 mins, but I think I was mostly shaken up.)

I performed a tumble on my bed which is hard and bouncy and had a headache all day. The next day I did some shadowboxing and felt a dull pain on the left upper part of my head. This was caused by accelerating and abruptly decelerating my head in a rotationary motion. Now I have many of the symptoms listed, tire easily, difficulty concentrating, feeling exhausted, slow reading etc. I believe that past concussions from accidents have made my brain very vulnerable to new concussions from seemingly mild forces.

I'm sorry. I hope for justice for your situation. People who have been through it understand it more. I can tell you as a female it wasn't much better for me. Blessings

i suffer fro m my incident for three years took to many blows to the head from fights last one left me blind in left eye didn't really know what was going on with me at first just i haven't been me have angry moods  have head ahces that keep me up with insomnia and fatigued concentration and focus and memory gotten bad and can't find the right words to say a lot and things come out all screwed up when i'm trying to carry a conversation on and my mind gets stuck on one thin g alot and can't get it to change subject on topics have fallen down and bumped into walls and can't see at night at all at night head lights from cars disorient me i get light headed and dizzy sleep schedule all jacked up hate going to get groceries cause it stresses me out trying to keep up with all I'm getting and shopping for good prices  blurred vision double vision and have been watching TV and the graphics be in like 3D almost like video game like and wouldn't be last about 5 to 10 minutes and it goes back to normal  and just recently i had a head ache that kept me up and it went away but i still couldn't sleep anxious mood and i lay in bed and my head felt weird just over my eye on left side in the front felt numbness  never felt that before  that was new to me but I'm still learning to deal with it all and its been 3 years now just take it one day at a time. reading and writing spelling and people take a toll on me i struggle with keeping up with that stuff can but really wears me out to wear i just want to be left a lone and go to sleep . used to never be like this I'm a people person now just leave me alone you get on my nerves. find my self doing things two or three times as well which is good make sure i lock the doors and turn off the stove and stuff have for got. like i said one day at a time.

That woman needs to be in jail. Did you file a police report each time? It must be documented by the authorities so you have proof. Then she'll go to jail, where she belongs! It does happen to men as well as women!

I wanted to post another comment on here because I was actually hit in the head a second time while still having post concussion syndrome symptoms. I couldn't find any information anywhere for what happens if you get hit in the head while still having post concussion symptoms. The symptoms I experienced after the 2nd hit were pretty bad, I actually thought I would die because I kept reading about 2nd impact syndrome and I had never felt that bad before in my life. The original hit was on May 14th 2016 I was in a sports accident were I was hit in the face and then hit the ground and blacked out for a few seconds. I was very confused when I woke up and couldn't remember actually being hit or anything directly before. I was sent to the ER and then told to rest. I was a dedicated athlete and I tried to return to the gym multiple times too soon which resulted in elevated symptoms and longer recovery time. Eventually I gave up and realized I would just be unable to exercise and I did start to recover after a while. I started school in September and I actually got hit in the head a second time in the classroom while still showing many post concussion symptoms from post concussion syndrome. A girl got up out of her chair and I went to get up at the same time and she hit heads with me. This was September 29th 2016. It is now November 17th 2016 and I want people to know I am feeling much better than a month ago. After being hit the second time I felt fine immediatly afterward but the next day I started feeling extremely bad. It got to its worst point about 2 weeks later. I felt extremely bad for about 1 month through all of October after the 2nd hit. Here are all of the symptoms I experienced after the 2nd hit while still having PCS. They were much more and much worse than the initial hit that knocked me out. I was unable to sleep the 2nd week following the 2nd hit because my head would shake whenever I laid on it. I also had the following symptoms: *tingling/numbness *visably shaking (almost like tremors) *nausea (very nauseated) *throbbing/pulsating in head *unable to lay on back of head or I would shake *fuzzy vision *liquid feeling in head *ringing in ears * stiff neck (shaking/choking feeling at times) *running out of breath when speaking *really dry mouth *very faint/weak feeling *very tight feeling in head and throughout face My lingering symptoms from the original concussion were only fuzzy vision,headache,ringing in the ears, and inability to exercise. When I would attempt to workout my head would get extremely tight and I would feel like it was hard to breath and my symptoms were completely unbearable. Like I said before I used to be a fitness fanatic before all this I wanted to teach fitness classes for a career so this has really hurt me. But anyways I ended up going to 2 hospitals(once 3 days after the second hit and once after 2 weeks when my symptoms peaked) i was cleared for no bleeding in the brain with a CT on the 1st visit and sent to a neurologist,opthamoigist, neuro physiatrist and some more places I forgot. They discovered that I also had a Whiplash type injury from the original hit which caused many of the symptoms such as the throbbing and stiff neck feeling. So if you were hit in a way that could have caused whiplash I highly recommend getting tested by a physical therapist or chiropractor. I'm currently being treated and it has helped a lot. I also was told the liquid feeling I get in my head is a vestibular issue in my inner ear. I am now taking these natural vitamins called Ring stop and they seem to have minimized my ear ringing and liquid feeling. After experiencing all those terrible symptoms I listed for pretty much all of October I am happy to say that it does get better. I am now only feeling the following symptoms here on November 17th. *fuzzy vision *ringing in the ears (improved with ring stop) *occasional dizziness *occasional tingly feeling (must less than before) *stiff neck Sometimes I'll feel very dizzy and that tingly feeling and then I'll feel a pulsation feeling in my head a couple times and I'll start feeling better. I've been told this is related to my whiplash injury. I also took 600mg Motrin to help me sleep during October. I'm now able to concentrate and do school work even though I am not in school I am now homebound due to what happened. I want to stress that I am no doctor and obviously my case may be different from many people but this has been a true nightmare for me and I really want to help other people who are going through this. Good doctors are very hard to find and I wanted to give information about having a 2nd concussion with post concussion syndrome. I could not find anything on this anywhere on the web so that's why I am posting this to let others know that even with a concussion on top of post concussion syndrome there will be relief eventually. I felt like giving up at times and I was afraid that this 2nd hit before my brain was fully healed was going to kill me. I'm happy to say it did not and I am feeling relief not great but I'm feeling relief. I hope that this will be helpful to many. Keep strong and stay positive. Good luck to everyone!

Thank you so much for your write-up. I am going through something similar now, and agree that there is not much information on 2nd injuries while in post concussive syndrome. Your words really helped me and provided a lot of support and guidance. Thank you, I hope you are back to 100% or close to it.

I'm so sorry about your situation. My heart goes out to you. I'm sending you positive vibes and love for a beautiful future.

For the gentleman on the receiving end of domestic abuse. I hear you loud and clear. My son was a victim of domestic abuse. Along with the physical injuries, a man feels ashamed and doesn't want to admit to it. I hope you don't encounter this person ever again. It's a crime in itself that authorities don't take this seriously.

I'm so sorry that happened to you. Abuse by females toward males isn't taken as seriously as male to female. I think this is due to males being the majority who inflict all types of abuse toward females. (Key: all types).. And somewhat routinely get a mere slap on the wrist until severe damage is done, if they are caught. This is terribly wrong. Abuse is abuse. Elderly, pets, anyone! You have suffered in silence, and it is good that you wrote your comment for others to see.

I hit the left temple area of my head on the corner of the stove hood almost 2 weeks ago. That day no problem, but next day, & every day/night since, I have had a headache several steps up from the worst migraine that I've ever had, & am so sensitive to light that even now I have my glasses on (tinted) & my sunglasses on. My doctor had blood work done to rule out temporal arteritis, & a CAT scan done, & said that both are "normal". I am to the point that I don't think that I can stand this pain of the headache any longer, & none of the Tylenol (allergic to Aspirin) even wave @ the pain. I can't drive, read, do anything. My doctor spent about 5 minutes on the exam (I know I need a new doctor, but we live in the boonies).

CAT scans, CT scans, MRIs, whatever, will usually not show a concussion unless you have structural damage as well. I’ve had several scans, but they don’t show anything unusual. I used to have migraines non stop and I’m sure our headaches were similar. I used to take Excedrin Migraine but it wouldn’t help. No pain medicine ever helped so I had to just suck it up. Half the time I got these headaches at school and I couldn’t leave to go home. I was told by my neurologist to only take one or two a week but I was taking one to two a day! I later had withdrawal symptoms. I recommend you don’t take medicine no matter how bad it hurts. Best thing to do is lay down in the dark. Hope you’re feeling better!

I got a concussion about a year ago. I was snowboarding and I landed on my head (twice) w the force of my full body weight coming down the mountain pretty quick. I immediately went back to school so I didn't fail my college classes (I actually passed w good grades). Now it is a year later and I don't feel much healed. I woke up this morning very dizzy and I get tension and concussion headaches quite frequently. MY only advice, let your brain heal! I didn't have much of an option bc I cannot afford to not graduate, but sometimes I wish I would have just dropped out. I have ptsd so this greatly affects how I heal. I wish I could go back everyday, bc life was hard enough before this concussion!

I understand, I fell down the stairs in my on campus residence in university the first saturday of last month (october 7th), i was knocked unconcious and was found by a student resident on the floor. I have managed to rest for two weeks but returned back on the third week not fully recovered. the thing is i visited my doctor last week and got lectured hard on how i should consider quitting this semester (i'm a double major with 5 subjects this semester, used to have 6 but dropped one after i found out that i can't handle all 6), as it is slowing down my recovery saying that health is important. the thing is i can't because there are alot of issues, and best way to sumit up, i have to graduate by the end of next semester or else i'm done for. now i'm cognitively feeling somewhat better, but physically i'm starting to get worse. I'm running myself to the ground everyday trying to complete assignments, just this week i haven't been able to sleep for two days trying to finish an essay (i still partly have some fogginess so it makes things difficult), by the end of monday's evening i looked like a "ghost" according to my mom. my mom tells me to "relax" but at the same time we both know i can't quit my courses, i still have to do them no way out. how can i "relax" and "heal" when i constantly have to worry about 5 subjects and loads of assignments in my head? I am torn between fatigue and mental breakdown every hour of the day and night

I suffered 3-5 concussions a year for a number of years from a violent abusive wife punching me in the head or using objects to inflict head trauma. It left me blind in my left eye, retina smashed up, and deteriorating loss of sight in my right eye. Also experience seizures on a weekly basis, loss of all sense of smell and taste from TBI. However, because I am not female no one gives a shit and still doesn't. Had I been female there would be no end to the help available. Police, courts, doctors could not care less. Why have laws against physical, mental and financial abuse if they are not applied?

I am having headaches that come and go. The right side of my head will hurt for a few seconds then the left side will start hurting for a few seconds then it goes away. I have been having migraines since I had my stroke in May 2016. Can anybody tell me what could be causing my headaches now and why they going from side to side. And they are sharp stabbing pains also. Can someone please help me with this.

I was attacked by 2 boxers while walking my dogs about 6 weeks ago.  I was knocked over by the boxers and was laying unconscious on the road for what I now believe was up to 5 minutes.  Two women came over and pulled the dogs off of me though I do not remember.  I didn't go to the doctor immediately.  Gradually over days, a very deep depression and insomnia hit me.  I had a CT scan and there were no blood clots or bleeding.  Over the past 6 weeks, I am struggling to resume my "normal" life.  I've been off work for 3 weeks.  My neuro doctor finally found a med I can tolerate so I can get some sleep.  I am 64 years old.  My neuro doctor told me it could take months for me to recover.  I feel so lost.

Everything will be ok! Scans will not show anything unless you have structural damage. Just know that depression, mood swings, irritability, etc. are common symptoms. I’ve had my concussion for 14 months and I’m doing extremely better! Recovery takes long, don’t be afraid of it. I used to wonder how much longer I could last but I just want to get better. Hope you’re feeling better.

I have systemic lupus and had major brain swelling years ago. Recently received a concussion, seems to be taking longer to recover. Could they be related?

I got into a drunken fight almost 3 months ago and believe I sustained multiple concussions.  I remember getting hit in the side of the head and don't remember much after that, other than being nearly choked out from behind.  I woke up to my head feeling different the following day.  It hurt to swallow for about 2 weeks but that went away. 

I have been battling a constant headache since then.  Sometimes the pressure, nausea and pain eases but my head always feels compressed.  It's as if blood vessels or nerves in my brain/cranium have been bruised, stretched, torn or damaged.  I also have tinnitus in my left ear.  The pain becomes unbearable when the unnerving tingling starts from the back of my head and radiates up and down to my forehead.

The burning behind my eyes are another story but that hasn't happened in a while.  Just when I think I'm getting better, my head takes a turn for the worst.  I have had 2 CT scans and an MRI with and without contrast.  Doctors tell me they show no abnormalities.  Before my unfortunate incident, I enjoyed working out and running now I pay for it later when I do.

Recently I've seen a neurologist and was prescribed pills for migraines and Gabopentin.  I think the Gabopentin makes my headache worse but helps me to sleep.  I'm thinking of having my neck looked at to see if there could be any damage there.  I have suicidal tendencies sometimes. 

I pray to the mystery that is the universe...with time and great belief, we will all return to our former and happier selves.

Just turned 30,

Martin

My symptoms are very similar to the person who commented they fell in the shower. I feel fine but when I lay down to sleep I get a tingly sensation in head and it's uncomfortable. I have to sleep on stomach. I went to urgent care but they told me I'm OK. I did not have CT scan. I'm not sure if I should go to emergency.

I was involved in a track and field accident. I did the no contact sport and always ignored the concussion mandatory meetings for all athletes. Now I have had a post concussion syndrome for almost 6 months. A long jumper hit heads with me at full speed which caused me to fall directly back onto the back of my head after hitting heads with him. In a way I got a double concussion. I blacked out only for a few seconds and was sent by ambulance to the ER. I have not been better since then. I would have been MVP and Captain of Cross Country this year and I can't even walk a mile without getting worn out. I am completely exercise intolerant. All I want is to be able to participate in my sport again.

I was a football and suffered multiple blows to the head. How long should I wait for the headache to stop or call it a concussion?

A week ago I fell in the shower: I hit the back of my head against the toilet (the impact point was between the skull's lower part and where the neck begins): the toilet lid broke and went flying (which I think helped as that released the impact energy some more instead of being absorbed back by my head): I did not lose consciousness; I just rested a few minutes sitting down in the shower, then finished washing and iced my bump right away. For a few days I kept icing my head; and the bump has subsided: it doesn't even feel sensitive anymore, even though it's still there. I have NOT once experienced nausea, vomiting, blurry vision, or loss of balance: none of that. My concentration and attention at work have seemed fine, but I have started feeling subcutaneous tenderness at the top of my head and some slight tingle-like headache (I am not sure how else to describe them- they do not impair my abilities, but they are there as a dull background pain). Clearly, I did some "damage", but  I am wondering if the headaches are part of the healing process or if I am deteriorating. Is it normal to feel this way? 

Three years ago I went head on into a tree with a snowmobile. I had a concussion, broken back two places, broken sternum, broken clavicle, bleeding on the brain.

At 30 mph I hit a 12 inch diameter tree straight on. My helmet skipped off the tree on impact wrapping my neck and shoulder around the tree while the snowmobile back end crushed me against it.

I was put on pain meds Oxycodone 5 mg -325 ,for the next three years for pain from shoulder and kneck (it took 8 months for the clavicle to heal, knocked out a 1 inch piece of bone).

Two months ago my doctor pulled me off the oxy due to the recent spike in addiction related uses. For three weeks I went without pain meds other than Tylenol, which I took to many trying to control the pain (similar to an earache but in the neck). I had acid reflux and seem to vomit a lot.

He ended up putting me on fentanyl patch for 24 hour pain control three weeks ago. To make a long story shorter I have been constantly vomiting, so I stopped using patch. I still seem to vomit almost every day.

I have narrowed down my constant vomiting to this: any excessive stress situation, I get motion sickness while driving, visual stimulation, excessive visual or sound activities will cause me to vomit non stop.

After the accident I couldn't watch TV, be in a room with more than one person, spent a lot of time in the dark. Any brain stimulation (dog barking) would cause me to almost instantly become nauseous for the first month.

I am concerned that the three years I was on the oxy may have masked long term issues that I now seem to be having.

I have been at the same job for 20 years and have to leave meetings due to extreme nausea. I blamed the patch for the sickness, but even though I am off it I seem to be getting worst.

I need help with this.

My husband and got into a car accident 3 years ago. I hit my head so hard on the windshield that it even the thick glass cracked. I was unconscious for a short while coz when I opened my eyes everything was white and blurred, and soon as I stepped down from the car I was dizzy, the guy who witnessed the accident offered me a monoblock chair to sit on. I had to put myself all together coz it really hurt, luckily my husband wasn't wounded badly because of the airbag. After a few minutes, we went to the nearest hospital to have myself checked-up at was told that should have an X-ray. The x-ray result showed that I should have a CT Scan and so I did. Everything was okay according to the doctors. However, as days passed, I would have minor headaches, my vision even got disrupted by small dots. I feel fine, I look well, until we found out that I was suffering from PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder), I had a lot of therapy sessions with my doctor then. I though everything was okay then, because I had my vision fixed with eyeglasses. Until today, I had a headache that's not usual, i can feel a lot of pressure from the area in my head that got hit 3 years ago. I would sometimes press that area and it's quite sensitive. Then for quite some time I can feel some tingling in my ears. Are these connected with the accident I had 3 years ago?

I was recently at the weight room and Coach decided we should add these ropes to the weight lifting stations. We had to pull up from the ground using the ropes. I kinda felt like we should not be doing this, so he said.. One person at a time, so I went ahead and took my turn. But instead someone didn't want to wait and came down with tons of weight on the bad and hit me as I was coming up. Gladly there was no cuts or black outs, but it's been 2 weeks and it's been getting worse, and we can't afford further treatment and staying at home pretty much sleeping and just trying to cope with it isn't enough. I hope it gets better

Sounds like he has one take him to the ER

Take him to the hospital. Better safe then sorry always

A couple of days ago my boyfriend was jumped by two guys he did lose consciousness but I'm not sure for how long. He has a few bumps on his head from being hit but the bumps don't seem to be going down quite yet. He says when he touches the bumps they  feel tender to the touch. I'm very worried  because he said he is feeling very tired and has a lack of energy, as well as a slower reaction to things. Not too bad but enough for him to see a slight change in behavior. After observing his activity  I have been seeing a bit of a change in him.  He is a little more calm than usual. There's a little bit of delay in how he comprehends things but that started 6 days later. He was also hit several times in the face. There is not bruising, just a lot of swelling. I know a lot of this is normal when you get in confrontations but after almost a week of healing, he is not showing signs of trauma. I know concussions can sometimes take time to show signs. I'm worried that the bumps are still tender and the fact that he did pass out. I'm trying to take him in but he wants to wait a couple more days because he said it's not that bad right now. What should I watch for over the next few days or do I just drag him to the hospital.

go to the hospital immediately. It could lead to a blood clot. You need to go. Some people think it will go away on its own? It might go away but I didn't go to the E.R and I wish I would have now because I still have symptoms 4 years later! I hope this information will help you. Good luck.

To the person above me who was bucked off: You had a concussion, no doubt. Please see a doctor. A few years ago I was tossed off my horse and I thought I was alright... The same thing happened.

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