Facts About Concussion and Brain Injury

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Facts about Concussion and Brain Injury: Where To Get Help

What Is a Concussion?

A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury—or TBI—caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to move rapidly back and forth. This sudden movement can cause the brain to bounce around or twist in the skull, creating chemical changes in the brain and sometimes stretching and damaging brain cells.

Concussions Are Serious

Medical providers may describe a concussion as a “mild” brain injury because concussions are usually not life-threatening. Even so, the effects of a concussion can be serious.

Because the brain is very complex, every brain injury is different. Some symptoms may appear right away, while others may not show up for days or weeks after the concussion. Sometimes the injury makes it hard for people to recognize or to admit that they are having problems.

The signs of concussion can be subtle. Early on, problems may be missed by patients, family members, and doctors. People may look fine even though they’re acting or feeling differently.

Because all brain injuries are different, so is concussion recovery. Most people with mild injuries recover fully, but it can take time. Some symptoms can last for days, weeks, or longer.

In general, recovery is slower in older persons. Also, persons who have had a concussion in the past may find that it takes longer to recover from their current injury.

This article explains what can happen after a concussion, how to get better, and where to go for more information and help when needed.


Medical Help

People with a concussion need to be seen by a doctor. While most are seen in an emergency department or a doctor’s office, some people must stay in the hospital overnight.

Your doctor may do a scan of your brain (such as a CT scan) or other tests. Other tests, known as “neuropsychological” or “neurocognitive” tests, assess your learning and memory skills, your ability to pay attention or concentrate, and how quickly you can think and solve problems. These tests can help your doctor identify the effects of a concussion. Even if the concussion doesn’t show up on these tests, you may still have a concussion.

Your doctor will send you home with important instructions to follow. Be sure to follow all of your doctor’s instructions carefully.

If you are taking medications—prescription, over-the-counter medicines, or “natural remedies”—or if you drink alcohol or take illicit drugs, tell your doctor. Also, tell your doctor if you are taking blood thinners (anticoagulant drugs), such as Coumadin and aspirin, because they can increase the chance of complications.


Danger Signs

In rare cases, a dangerous collection of blood (hematoma) may form on the brain after a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body that may squeeze the brain against the skull. Call 9-1-1 right away or contact your doctor or emergency department if you have one or more of the following danger signs after a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body:

  • One pupil larger than the other.
  • Drowsiness or inability to wake up.
  • A headache that gets worse and does not go away.
  • Slurred speech, weakness, numbness, or decreased coordination.
  • Repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures (shaking or twitching).
  • Unusual behavior, increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation.
  • Loss of consciousness (passed out/knocked out). Even a brief loss of consciousness should be taken seriously.

Danger Signs — Children, Toddlers, and Infants

Take your child to the emergency department right away if the child has received a blow or jolt to the head and:

  • Any of the signs and symptoms listed in the Danger Signs & Symptoms of a Concussion list.
  • Will not stop crying and cannot be consoled.
  • Will not nurse or eat.

Symptoms of Brain Injury

“I just don’t feel like myself.”

Persons of All Ages

Most people with a concussion have one or more of the symptoms listed below and recover fully within days, weeks or a few months. But for some people, symptoms of concussion can last even longer. Generally, if you feel that “something is not quite right,” or if you are feeling “foggy,” you should talk with your doctor.

Concussion symptoms are often grouped into four categories, including:

  • Remembering and Thinking
    • Difficulty thinking clearly
    • Feeling slowed down
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Difficulty remembering new information
  • Physical
    • Headache
    • Nausea or vomiting (early on)
    • Balance problems
    • Dizziness
    • Fuzzy or blurry vision
    • Feeling tired, having no energy
    • Sensitivity to noise or light
  • Emotional/Mood
    • Irritability
    • Sadness
    • More emotional
    • Nervousness or anxiety
  • Sleep Disturbance
    • Sleeping more than usual
    • Sleeping less than usual
    • Trouble falling asleep

Some of these symptoms may appear right away, while others may not be noticed for days or months after the injury, or until the person starts resuming their everyday life and more demands are placed upon them. Sometimes, people do not recognize or admit that they are having problems. Others may not understand why they are having problems and what their problems really are, which can make them nervous and upset.

The signs and symptoms of a concussion can be difficult to sort out. Early on, problems may be missed by the person with the concussion, family members, or doctors. People may look fine even though they are acting or feeling differently.

Young Children

Very young children (i.e., infants, toddlers, and preschoolers) often bump and bruise their heads. This can happen as a result of motor vehicle crashes, falls, getting hit in the head with a ball or toy, or from tricycle/bike accidents. Sometimes these events can be serious and result in a concussion.

Young children can have the same symptoms of a concussion as older children, but it is harder for them to let others know how they are feeling. In addition to the symptoms mentioned on page 5, call your child’s doctor right away if your child seems to be getting worse or if you notice any of the following:

  • Crying more than usual
  • Headache that will not go away
  • Change in the way they play, perform or act at school
  • Change in nursing, eating, or sleeping patterns
  • Becoming easily upset or increased temper tantrums
  • Sad mood
  • Lack of interest in usual activities or favorite toys
  • Loss of new skills, such as toilet training
  • Loss of balance, unsteady walking
  • Poor attention

Older Adults

Because concussions are often missed or misdiagnosed among older adults, be especially alert if you know that an older adult has fallen or has a fall-related injury, such as a hip fracture. Older adults may have a higher risk of serious complications from a concussion, such as bleeding on the brain. Headaches that get worse or increased confusion are signs of this complication. If they occur, see a doctor right away. Older adults often take blood thinners; if they do, they should be seen immediately by a health care provider if they have a bump or blow to the head or body even if they do not have any of the symptoms listed above.


Getting Better

“Sometimes the best thing you can do is just rest and then try again later.”

Although most people recover fully after a concussion, how quickly they improve depends on many factors. These factors include how severe their concussion was, their age, how healthy they were before the concussion, and how they take care of themselves after the injury.

Some people who have had a concussion find that at first it is hard to do their daily activities, their job, to get along with everyone at home, or to relax. Ignoring your symptoms and trying to “tough it out” often makes symptoms worse.

Rest is very important after a concussion because it helps the brain to heal. You’ll need to be patient because healing takes time. Only when the symptoms have reduced significantly, in consultation with your doctor, should you slowly and gradually return to your daily activities, such as work or school. If your symptoms come back or you get new symptoms as you become more active, this is a sign that you are pushing yourself too hard. Stop these activities and take more time to rest and recover. As the days go by, you can expect to gradually feel better.

If you already had a medical condition at the time of your concussion (such as chronic headaches), it may take longer for you to recover from the concussion. Anxiety and depression may also make it harder to adjust to the symptoms of a concussion. While you are healing, you should be very careful to avoid doing anything that could cause a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body. On rare occasions, receiving another concussion before the brain has healed can result in brain swelling, permanent brain damage, and even death, particularly among children and teens.

After you have recovered from your concussion, you should protect yourself from having another one. People who have had repeated concussions may have serious long-term problems, including chronic difficulty with concentration, memory, headache, and occasionally, physical skills, such as keeping one’s balance.

Tips for Healing: Adults

Here are a few tips to help you get better:

  • Get plenty of sleep at night, and rest during the day.
  • Avoid activities that are physically demanding (e.g., heavy housecleaning, weightlifting/working-out) or require a lot of concentration (e.g., balancing your checkbook). They can make your symptoms worse and slow your recovery.
  • Avoid activities, such as contact or recreational sports, that could lead to a second concussion. (It is best to avoid roller coasters or other high-speed rides that can make your symptoms worse or even cause a concussion.)
  • When your doctor says you are well enough, return to your normal activities gradually, not all at once.
  • Because your ability to react may be slower after a concussion, ask your doctor when you can safely drive a car, ride a bike, or operate heavy equipment.
  • Talk with your doctor about when you can return to work. Ask about how you can help your employer understand what has happened to you.
  • Consider talking with your employer about returning to work gradually and about changing your work activities or schedule until you recover (e.g., work half-days).
  • Take only those drugs that your doctor has approved.
  • Do not drink alcoholic beverages until your doctor says you are well enough. Alcohol and other drugs may slow your recovery and put you at risk of further injury.
  • Write down the things that may be harder than usual for you to remember.
  • If you’re easily distracted, try to do one thing at a time. For example, don’t try to watch TV while fixing dinner.
  • Consult with family members or close friends when making important decisions.
  • Do not neglect your basic needs, such as eating well and getting enough rest.
  • Avoid sustained computer use, including computer/video games early in the recovery process.
  • Some people report that flying in airplanes makes their symptoms worse shortly after a concussion.

Tips for Healing: Children

Parents and caregivers of children who have had a concussion can help them recover by taking an active role in their recovery:

  • Having the child get plenty of rest. Keep a regular sleep schedule, including no late nights and no sleepovers.
  • Making sure the child avoids high-risk/ high-speed activities such as riding a bicycle, playing sports, or climbing playground equipment, roller coasters or rides that could result in a second bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body. Children should not return to these types of activities until the doctor says they are well enough.
  • Giving the child only those drugs that are approved by the pediatrician or family physician.
  • Talking with the doctor about when the child should return to school and other activities and how the parent or caregiver can help the child deal with the challenges that the child may face. For example, your child may need to spend fewer hours at school, rest often, or require more time to take tests.
  • Sharing information about concussion with parents, siblings, teachers, counselors, babysitters, coaches, and others who interact with the child helps them understand what has happened and how to meet the child’s needs.

Where to Get Help

Help for People with Concussion

“It was the first time in my life that I couldn’t depend on myself.”

There are many people who can help you and your family as you recover from a concussion. You do not have to do it alone.

Show this article to your doctor or health care provider and talk with them about your concerns. Ask your doctor about whether you need specialized treatment and about the availability of rehabilitation programs.

Your doctor can help you find a health care provider who has special training in treating concussion. Early treatment of symptoms by a specialist may speed recovery. Your doctor may refer you to a neuropsychologist, neurologist, or specialist in rehabilitation.

Keep talking with your doctor, family members, and loved ones about how you are feeling, both physically and emotionally. If you do not think you are getting better, tell your doctor.

For more information, see the resources listed below.

Help for Families and Caregivers

“My husband used to be so calm. But after his injury, he started to explode over the littlest things. He didn’t even know that he had changed.”

When someone close to you has a concussion or a more serious brain injury, it can be hard to know how best to help. They may say that they are “fine” but you can tell from how they are acting that something has changed.

If you notice that your family member or friend has symptoms of a concussion that are getting worse, talk to them and their doctor about getting help. They may need help if you can answer YES to any of the following questions:

  • Are any of the concussion symptoms substantially affecting their life activities (such as feeling restricted in their activities due to symptoms, performance in school or at work has changed, unhappy with life changes)?
  • Has their personality changed?
  • Do they get angry for no reason?
  • Do they get lost or easily confused?
  • Do they have more trouble than usual making decisions?

You might want to talk with people who share your experience. The Brain Injury Association of America can put you in contact with people who can help (listed in the resource section below).

Resources for Getting Help

“I thought I was all alone, but I’m not. There are lots of people out there who understand what I’ve been through.”

Several groups help people and their families deal with concussion and more serious brain injuries. They provide information and put people in touch with local resources, such as support groups, rehabilitation services, and a variety of health care professionals.

  • CDC’s Injury Center has created resources and conducts research to help prevent concussion and more serious brain injuries and improve outcomes for survivors. For more information contact CDC toll-free at 1-800-CDC-INFO (1-800-232-4636) or visit CDC’s Injury Center on the Web at www.cdc.gov/TraumaticBrainInjury.
  • The Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) has a national network of many state affiliates and hundreds of local chapters and support groups across the country that provide help in your community.

    You can reach BIAA by calling the toll-free National Brain Injury Information Center at 1-800-444-6443.

    You can also get information through their website at www.biausa.org. Both the help line and the website can provide you with information about the BIAA affiliate closest to you.

  • The Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center (DVBIC) works to ensure that active duty military and veterans with brain injury receive the best evaluation, treatment, and follow-up. You can reach DVBIC by calling toll-free at 1-800-870-9244 or by visiting their website at www.dvbic.org.

    For more information about TBI in the military, including an interactive website for service members, veterans, and families and caregivers, please visit: www.TraumaticBrainInjuryatoz.org.

From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. www.cdc.gov.
Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advice. The reader is advised to always seek the advice of a physician prior to changing any treatment or to receive answers to questions regarding a specific medical condition.

Posted on BrainLine November 17, 2017. Reviewed March 27, 2019.

Disclaimer: This information is not meant to be a substitute for professional medical advice. The reader is advised to always seek the advice of a physician prior to changing any treatment or to receive answers to questions regarding a specific medical condition.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2017, July 6). Traumatic Brain Injury & Concussion. Retrieved November 17, 2017, from www.cdc.gov

Comments (424)

Please remember, we are not able to give medical or legal advice. If you have medical concerns, please consult your doctor. All posted comments are the views and opinions of the poster only.

I have been a 25 miler per day on bike, until car hit me. Crushed my helmet, small 4 cm gash, unconscious for 5-10 min, taken to hospital in ambulance, concussion and compression fracture at T-3. It has been 6 months and I have most of the same symptoms with some improvement: severe neck pain, fleeting headaches, rhombus pain both sides, feeling 'stunned' most of the time, lack of coordination, auto travel produces nystagma. Do well to ride 1-2 times per week max of 4.5 miles. Use treadmill 3 days per week, about 1.5 miles each. Exercise is extremely difficult! Will never be the same. :((
I had a mild concussion 2 years ago. I was rear ended. I had a torn ligament in the back of my neck and the whipping of my head caused the concussion. Among other symptoms, memory problems etc... I have notice that I don\'t seem to handle stress very well. I feel like flight or flight and the pressure of the stess is overwhelming. Is this normal? Has anyone else experienced this? I would really appreciate any input someone might have. Oh, I don\'t do it as much now, but I also will repeat words or actions when typing.
I had a concussion for about a month and a half before now and I just found out a few weeks ago. It isn't major, but because I took so long to diagnose it and start treating it, it is supposed to take longer to recover. The question on my mind is how much longer is it until I can get back to normal / will I get back to completely normal? I am getting recruited for college softball and have school I need to get back to, so I am a little worried. Thanks! Goodluck to everyone out there with a concussion :)
I had a pretty bad concussion two years ago when i was in the eighth grade. I was out of school for a week with a really bad black eye. When the swelling went down, the whole white of my eye was bright red. That went away. I fractured my skull right beside my eye. Ever since my concussion, i get sick after i eat. I don't throw up, but i experience nausea, i get really pale, and sometimes i get blotchy. When i finish eating, i can't look at anyone elses food or smell food, it discusts me. It usually starts out with tremors going through my body, starting in my stonach area, sometimes my legs go numb, and my heart feels fluttery. I've lost 16 pounds because of this and have never gained it back. Sometimes i get really bad acid reflux if i eat greasy food, but thats gets better when i take a few Tums. I also get really bad depression and cry a lot, lose my temper for no reason, and have trouble learning in school. I've had to pause a few times while writing this just because i forgot what i was going to say. If anyone knows a way to help with my nausea after eating, please let me know.
Can a concussion have long term affects? My daughter was hospitalized for a concussion at the age of 8 and is now 16, and has difficulty remembering things.Texas
I just got a concusion saturday I am just wondering, the doctor sent me omeand said get some rest, but my speech is the same and everythingi do is so much slower. My talking, writing anf typing. It takes me longer to remember things and I ger a bad taste in my mouth. I dont feel as tho i am gettig better. I get dizzy and so tired. Will this go away
Hi, I was rear ended in 2007 and have had a concussion and side effects of forgetfulness and just walking around feeling stunned. Finally a Doctor asked me if there was anything I wanted to ask, I said, "is there any help for me to improve?' He sent me to a Speech Therapist and she has come up with all sorts of ways for me to retain myself and has pointed me to a support group, that I will attend next week. Already I am feeling so much encouraged that I have a way to get some of the "old me" back. My Speech Therapist feels strongly that a person with a brain injury should not be let alone to figure out how to get better or retain oneself!! I am so glad God helped me get the right help. I advise all of you to get this type of help. God bless you all! Hang in there it will get better!! Margie S
thank you for your information my huspand has brian injury what kind of question can i ask the doctars when i will meet them i am very confuse
I have found adderall helped me a lot with my slowness and omega 3..Flax for women only .Ive heard coconut oil helps with dimentia so maybe TBI people should try it
wow!! thanks to all. I was at work and a box fell about 24ft and hit me on top of my head. I was diagnosed with a cervical neck sprain. I continued to work while going to physiotherapy, accupuncture, and massage for over 18 months. 28 months with symptoms of nausea, headaches, ringing in my ear, pain, numbness, confusion, cognitive problems, memory, strange decisions, and then completer exhaustion my GP diagnosed pain disorder and depression. I met the best Dr. in the world who said obviously you had a concussion and post concussion sydrome. I burst our crying as i thought i had lost my mind. since then she has sent me to pain clinics, to a brain injury clinic and although i still suffer many symptoms 4 years later i have worked on the loss of my life as i knew it, i know i am not imaging anything and now i am working on what to do with the rest of my life. God bless to all
I've had a TBI now for 2.5 years. Going to a doctor won't nessarly help most doctors are idiots. Most Doctors do not know what to do for TBI people and give you drugs you don't need and therapy that won't help. I would suggest hyperbaric chamber. It's said to help brain injuried people. Most MRI's and CAT's are negative but don't let that discourage you. Brain mapping is another method that really helps. I've found that going to youtube and looking John Byler has helped me termendously. He has six sessions that help explain what he has gone through. I'm slowly recoverying but still have a long way to go.
Get Dr. Daniel G.Amen's book Change Your Brain Change Your Life. He shows you in pictures using SPECT imaging about what happens to the brain. He has offices in California and Washington state.
thanks for the comments about somatoform, medical \"experts\" noted my husband has a mild TBI, he has no working memory pre or post accident, has ptsd and they tried to say he has picked up a somatoform disorder...symptoms are all brain injury and also consistent with hypoxia....it happens over time and is not instant so you may notice your husband/wife etc decline over time...the time peiod for healing they have given me keeps being extended they really dont have a clue..if you get a TBI read \"I\'ll carry the fork...\" its like being an outsider looking into your life...
Sometimes it is made worse by the providers..............and psychologists that do not have enough medical knowledge to help people get the treatment they need instead of giving them a mental illness they don't have............and performing a mental privacy rape............asking too many personal questions. Or at teaching hospitals............performing tests such as speech iq garbage when a patient has said no.....is strung out on drugs such as fentaynl morphine lortab and other drugs............or has gone with out pain meds for 09 hours.....they just want to use people as lab rats....
It appears the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is just as ignorant as most doctors, including those in the UK. The errors in this article are crucial. They (CDC&P) said Nobody who suffers a concussion ever recovers fully. They may recover from acute symptoms, dizziness, head aches, etc. but there will always be some residual damage or weakness in their brain. This was observed in the 1970’s by Dr Dorothy Gronwall in New Zealand. The symptoms may not be evident until there are other stressors to the brain but some underlying damage will remain. They also state Rarely will there be any evidence of a concussion or other mild Traumatic brain injury on a CT or MRI. The damage is just too microscopic to show up on these imaging technologies. Clinical diagnosis is the most important. Even when clinical diagnosis is negative for concussion, possible/probable concussion should be noted in the medical records. The patient’s self-reporting of stars, dizziness, confusion, or other symptoms after the head impact is enough for a diagnosis of concussion. Many patients get lost in the system because their possible/probable concussion was not noted in their medical records. This leads to later symptoms being dismissed, discounted, or attributed to other causation. This often leads to a diagnosis of somatoform disorder which can negatively impact the future health care of the patient. It is important for the treating facility to do a follow-up, either in person in a clinic or by phone call to determine if symptoms have later developed or returned. Relying on the patient to return to the clinic based on their own judgment is problematic. Research shows that minor bleeds become most evident at about 72 hours. An increase in symptoms during this time period can possibly justify a new imaging study.
i have read your comments and post and hopefully once i show these to my son he will try to get some therapy he was dropped from a over pass six years ago and was in a functional coma where he was catatonic but had the ability to speak and semi understand his surrondings but his whole personality changed once he woke up and from what i read here today i see it can be helped if you se somebody
I had a concussion about 13 years ago, my question for you is, am I fine now? I feel fine, most days
God has a funny way of getting our attention. I know what I have to do now. THANK YOU ALL FOR SHARING YOUR STORIES.BEYOND THE dOCTORS THERE IS NEVER COMPINSATION FOR LOOSING YOUR LIFE AND STILL BEING ALIVE
TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN I HAVE HAD A BRAIN INJURY IN OCT 2007 AND WAS OUT FOR 3 DAYS STRAIGHT 4TH DAY CRAWLED TO THE BED STILL DIDNT NOT NO I WAS HIT ON HEAD UNTIL I WOKE UP AND LOOKED IN MIRROR AND THEN NOTICED DIDNT END UP IN HOSPITAL UNTIL MAYBE 6 OR 7 DAYS LATER CAN SOME ONE POINME ON WHAT TO DO ??? I HAVE NO INSURANCE AND ALWAYS GETTING HEAD ACHES MOOD SWINGS MY WIFE TELLS ME AND LOTTA OTHER SYMPTOMS AND VERY FORGETFUL ! PLEASE SOMEONE HELP IM 44 YEARS OLD AND VERY DEPRESSED AND CRY A LOT ABOUT THIS PLEASE HELP ALSO IF ANYONE CAN HELP PLEASE LET ME NO AND I WILL GIVE MY EMAIL ADDRESS I DONT HAVE NO CLUE ON WHAT TO DO AT ALL DAVE
I am amazed at this. I read up on concussions and learned what the symptoms are, and that it is crucial to get medical attention and rehab as soon as possible; yet, according to your comments, it is the same as with my good friend...dizzy, weak, unbalanced, nausea...and yet none of the Drs. seem concerned. They do not think there was a concussion sustained (rear-ended by a semi, no skid marks, and forced into a line of three more stopped vehicles); 150 stitches in the back of the head, with deep abrasion on forehead. But a concussion? Doubtful. So, what do you do? Pray. Pray for a competent Dr. to help you out. And believe in the Power of God--then live as a Witness to Him. God bless each of you with a healing. Judy, IN
thank for this l just go troht l problen with is consornig is my brain no body what is hapenig tu my son they said is depretion boooo please help me australia
Guy, I so know your situation as I was a student at Harvard and had an accident and was treated very similar. After five years of living with this, my conclusions are that the medical industry has no idea in general how to look at this, and honestly after going to one of the best rehab facilities in the world, they have no idea how to treat it.... seriously, they don't. They cannot prove anything by looking at exrays because to them it does not exist. When you look at the fact that anything that truly exists is made up of energy and matter. We are energy and it damages our brains, system, and energy flow. I was healed by a tremendous woman who healed her own daughter with TBI from a car accident. Please contact me at lcampbell@pvgasset.com and I can help you... trust me. Laura
This is all interesting. I live in UK and was rear-ended at high speed three years ago. I fatigue easily, even now, and have a lot of very irritating deficits such as clumsiness, forgetfulness, lack of concenration, lack of smell & taste, etc. I am 62 and accept that it's not as serious as if it had happened to me as a young man. There as been ongoing litigation, for relatively trivial money, maybe 100,000 sterling tops. But, having had an extensive series of tests which supported my claim, my lawsuit was stopped in its tracks then other day by our own Expert Medical Witness, a Professor of Neuropsychiatry at a London Unversity who examined me and then wrote the following report: "The first question to address is did the accident result in a brain injury. Using the standard parameters to make such an evaluation, namely the presence of unconsciousess, retrograde or post traumatic amnesia there is no evidence that he displays any problems in these domains. Neither was there a head injury sustained in the index event. These parameters clearly indicate that there was no head injury sustained and thus on this basis it is difficult to account for neurological type symptoms which he now presents with in terms of any brain injury sustained in the accident. The overwhelming evidence is that he did not sustain a brain injury." I had reported that after the crash I just sat in my seat completely dazed and seeing stars for anything from ten seconds to a minute, (I was on my own) but did not lose consciousness or memories of the event. I find it very frustrating. The inference is either that I am making it all up, or else that coincidental Ily with the week of the crash I developed a whole suite of idiopathic neurological problems. Apologies for ranting. Guy
i have a concussion. this article has helped me to understand!!!!!!!!!!!!!! thank you for writting this. christy linnean james

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