Interactive Brain

Frontal Lobes

Located behind the forehead, the frontal lobes are the largest lobes of the brain. They are prone to injury because they sit just inside the front of the skull and near rough bony ridges. These two lobes are involved in:

  • planning & organizing
  • problem solving & decision making
  • memory & attention
  • controlling behavior, emotions & impulses

The left frontal lobe plays a large role in speech and language.

Problems After Injury

Injury to the frontal lobes may affect:

  • emotions & impulses
  • language
  • memory
  • social and sexual behavior
Parietal Lobes

Located behind the frontal lobes, the parietal lobes:

  • integrate sensory information from various parts of the body
  • contain the primary sensory cortex, which controls sensation (touch, hot or cold, pain)
  • tell us which way is up
  • help to keep us from bumping into things when we walk


Problems After Injury

Damage to the parietal lobes may result in:

  • an inability to locate parts of your body
  • an inability to recognize parts of your body


Temporal Lobes

The temporal lobes are located on the sides of the brain under the parietal lobes and behind the frontal lobes at about the level of the ears. They are responsible for:

  • recognizing and processing sound
  • understanding and producing speech
  • various aspects of memory


Problems After Injury

Damage to specific parts of the temporal lobe can result in:

  • hearing loss
  • language problems
  • sensory problems like the inability to recognize a familiar person’s face


Occipital Lobes

Located at the lower back of the head, the occipital lobes:

  • receive and process visual information
  • contain areas that help in perceiving shapes and colors


Problems After Injury

Damage to the occipital lobes can cause:

  • visual field defects
  • distorted perceptions of size, color, and shape



Located at the back of the brain, the cerebellum controls:

  • balance
  • movement
  • coordination


The cerebellum also allows us to:

  • stand upright
  • keep our balance
  • move around


Problems After Injury

Damage to the cerebellum can result in:

  • uncoordinated movement
  • loss of muscle tone
  • an unsteady gait


Brain Stem

Located at the base of the brain, the brainstem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. It regulates basic involuntary functions necessary for survival such as:

  • breathing
  • heart rate
  • blood pressure
  • swallowing

It also plays a role in alertness and sensation.

Problems After Injury

Injury to the brainstem can disrupt basic functions so that they are no longer regulated automatically. These functions can include:

  • heart rate
  • breathing
  • swallowing

Located below the thalamus and above the brain stem, the hypothalamus:

  • helps us regulate body temperature
  • helps us realize when we are hungry or thirsty
  • plays a role in what mood we might be feeling
  • releases and controls many hormones that we need to function

Injury to the hypothalamus may affect:

  • sex drive
  • sleep
  • hunger
  • thirst
  • emotions
Pituitary Gland

Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland:

  • regulates and releases important hormones to our body
  • plays a big part of our overall well-being

Injury to the pituitary gland may affect:

  • growth in children
  • blood pressure
  • fatigue
  • depression
  • sex drive
  • body temperature
  • pain

Located near the hippocampus in the frontal portion of the temporal lobes, the amygdala:

  • are invovled in the formation and storage of information related to emotional events
  • facilitate long-term memory formation
  • convert and retain learning from pleasure responses
  • help us recognize when we are in danger or fearful of something

Injury to the amygdala may affect:

  • memory formation
  • emotional sensitivity
  • learning and rentention
  • depression
  • anxiety

The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe. The cells in the hippocampus are hypersensitive to oxygen loss or lower blood flow in the case of a brain injury. The hippocampus:

  • is responsible for memory creation and retention
  • helps us create new memories
  • helps us orient ourselves in our surroundings
  • facilitates our ability to navigate and find our way around the world

Injury to the hippocampus may affect:

  • new memory creation
  • new memory retention
  • mood
  • confusion
  • disorientation
Posted on BrainLine August 21, 2012. Reviewed July 25, 2018.

Comments (51)

Please remember, we are not able to give medical or legal advice. If you have medical concerns, please consult your doctor. All posted comments are the views and opinions of the poster only.

I have a 14 year old son who on May 31 was in a bad car accident. He was life flighted to local Children's hospital. Where he had two small brain bleeds and swelling. He was placed into medically induced. Coma so he would stay calm. He was in there for about two weeks maybe three. He was the. Sent to a children's rehab was there two weeks And is home now. Doing really well. He did have Adhd. before the accident. He is in school boys scouts and speech therapy once week. My question how long before he gets back to his old self. And could the accident make his Adhd worse.

I have a very bad frontal lobe.

This reading will allow me to ask more questions to my doctor about thins i feel they don't know about me,

For “Spirituality” ... I would have to go with the hippocampus, as it “facilitates our ability to navigate and find our way around the world” and also “helps us orient ourselves in our surroundings”.

If that isn’t the part of the brain that would have one connecting spiritually, then I am not sure which part would. However, “spirituality” is a whole different aspect from a loving relationship, from being filled with the Holy Spirit!

That involves every aspect and every part of the brain and body! I had a peach size, 99.95% of my left front temporal lobe removed in a double brain surgery June 13th and June 20th 2017. This stopped 20yrs of refractory seizures that were occurring as the after affect results from the onset of Lupus Neurosis and Lupus Nephritis that I was diagnosed with just twenty years prior, 1997.

Twenty years of seizures that were uncontrolled by medication and required brain surgery, twenty years of living life in a way I thought was “spiritual”, only to finally start living it right prior to surgery, living life the right way, living it in the way God asked us to, for; “He said to him, “Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. This is the greatest and most important command. The second is like it: Love your neighbor as yourself.”
‭‭ Matthew‬ ‭22:37-39‬

I simply started putting my focus on God first in all things, and pouring my love out to all those around, my neighbors, even those who treat me with hurt! I have no idea what they are going through! My situation is nothing compared to what so many others ho through!

I was in a bad car accident when i was 14. The doctors said i would not survive one night and that my version was soup without further explanation. I didn't know until 5 weeks ago that i could even have side effects. I was a straight A student before the accident and afterwards i was all D's. I was still smart i just didn't know i needed help.
I am almost 40 now and I've been passing out, having pain in my head, am confused often, frustrated, have mood swings, trouble communicating, staying focused.
My wife gets so mad at me for not being able to communicate my feelings, show "proper" facial expressions, etc.
I am so glad she does not y get mad at me now for processing sound and speech. I just don't understand how to express to her that I'm really trying.
This is new for both of us as these symptoms, whatever they are, are so new. I did not have any of these problems a few years ago.
Oh, i shake now too. I can be doing something and in the middle of it I shake uncontrollably for what feels like an instant. My wife told me that the shakes last for a few minutes. Sometimes i have to open a door a few times before I can complete the task of getting out a dish or walking through it. I saw my doctor last week and she's referred me to a neurologist. I hope i hear good news.

Thank you sooooooooo much for all the info! It definitely helped me in my school brain project

I learned the different names of the brain along with what each part does. It was all fascinating to learn.

thank you for all of the insite. I don't think anyone has ever discussed the brain so well, or as good. thank you for all of your help.

I was injured in a grizzly bear mauling on 7/19/09. At first I was focused on my soft tissue and bone injuries and healing.
It wasn’t until I was referred to a speech therapist that it became apparent that I also had a tbi. Simple dayly tasks like reading counting money and driving. I found myself having to relearning my trade.
I am almost 9 years out from injury and have been able to maintain my small business.
I have found tools to help me with dayly life and my business.

I had a tumour on my brain-stem that was removed Dec 13/99. Damage from the surgery and then post op brain swelling 12 days later left me with brain-stem damage plus Limbic, Pons, Cerebellum, Temporal Lobe, Hypothalamus, and Amygdala damage. This site has helped me to understand why so many things are such a struggle for me. Thank you.

So sorry to hear of all your pain and suffering - I hope you are doing better now.

I got a tbi as I was leaving work.
One of my coworkers accidentally hit me with a truck.
I believed that I was fine. But the people that love me told me that I have been acting different.
I had to believe them because that are my family.
I'm 61 and worked on the power lines as a lineman. After seeing the best doctors,I am finding my way to normalcy.
I will never go back to the job that I love. But I am alive and well.

I also had a major car accident at the age of 19 and damaged front left lobe ( amongst other things). Been struggling ever since with concentration, social impulse and memory, but now I am 63 and have enjoyed a full and successful life. No secret, but surround yourself with close friends who can help and guide you and don't be afraid to asking what , why and how?

I am a 3 time aneurysm survivor one Rupture,one clamp,& 1 now with stage 4 lung cancer had many tell me it. Changed my memory and personality! But I'm alive so I'm happy for that !!
The main thing this site has indicated in my view is that each braininjury regardless of how similar seems to affect each person differently.
What part of the brain affects our spirituality

My son, now 48, had seizure 18 years ago. During the period of seizure he was also diagnosed to have suffered from Hypoxic Encephalitis resulting into loss of memory and recognizing ability. since then he is under medication as well as some brain stimulating exercises such as jigsaw puzzles etc. Somehow I don't find any improvement in his memory and cognitive impairment. Pl do advise.

I am a ten year old and I am researching the brain for a project. All the comments make me feel so sad to hear all sad stories. I hope if you get a brain injury you can still live your life as a happy person.

also I have a friend who has a brain injury and is still always laughing.

I have MS so my brain is always going through changes. I am on MS support group sites, I ask a question and get what seems like 1000 different answers. I love this site thank you

No matter what I learn I just can't get my head around it even if I concentrate it just doesn't go through my head

An infection ate away a section of my husband's lower left lobe of his cerebellum.  He now has comprehension and memory problems. How can he be helped?

Wow, I've never openly admitted I had a head injury. Reading all these comments makes me feel normal. Thank you to all of you. I had my car crash in 2003 - loads of broken bones, fractures, HEAD INJURY. Frontal lobe was affected. Family was told the usual script "that I'll never be the same" etc. They were right. I think it was for the best I had this event in my life. It forced me to "simmer down". I was a careless 21 year old and now it has changed my future. I still can't hold a job for too long as I get bored, lose interest, and my focus and attention span is very short. Anyway, I've gone off on one. Wow I've wrote a biography lol. When this gets reviewed it probably get deleted but at least one person would have read it. Thank you.

Does a temporal lobe stroke cause up to 10 headaches a day?

The Temporal Lobes do not just involve function of memory and language,they are also the "seat" of the personality and creativity.

My family member has Young Onset Dementia affected greatly the Temporal Lobes and her personality has greatly changed and she has also lost all her creativity.

She used to be intelligent and have a big personality and self of humor but now she is just "shell" of who she was and just sits there vacantly rocking with no personality,interests or thoughts.Its like it's all been "wiped out".

 Frontal Lobe damage is generally thought of as being associated with personality changes but it is lesser known that the Temporal lobe damage can also provide personality change.

Frontal Lobe should more be thought as Inhibition.Ie:if it is damaged the person can't inhibit their personality in social situations and makes social faux pas without concern or recognition.

Temporal Lobe, particularly Superior Temporal region changes,can affect the personality dramatically and the victims can be left without personality,or with extreme irrational anger outbursts,or unable to correctly read and interpret situations and therefor over reacting with much anger etc inappropriate to the situation.

I had an astrocytoma removed and my surgeon stopped using the image guiding machine and decided that what he saw was part of the tumor turns out that when he snipped it it was actually a blood vessel so when he snipped the blood vessel I woke up on the OR table convulsing so hard in fact they strapped me down to the OR table when I woke up I tried to speak but had a tube down my throat and when I tried to wave my arms to tell the surgeon that I was awake I realized head strapped to the table so I started using sign language 28th my right fingers I caught the attention of the resident who said huh doctor so so I think she's awake. Shortly after that the anesthesiologist came over made me blink twice if I was awake I blinked next thing I remember is freaking out because they wanted me to go through the MRI after brain surgery the last thing I wanted was a bleeping MRI so they sedated me and ran me through the MRI. After all of that to make sure the tumor was gone I went through 6 weeks of chemo and 6 weeks of radiation surgery left me paralyzed on my left side

The probable cause of pain on the right frontal lobe is simply a migraine headache. Take solace in the fact that the brain is incapable of producing pain.

I am experiencing constant debilitating pain on the right side of my frontal lobe, do you have any idea what the cause of this could be?

I definitely learned things that I did not know before!

-Parker Deal. (Mrs.Norris' Intro To Psych.)

Each brain injury is unique. The most important thing the community surrounding the brain injured could add to the great progress occurring is to stop the community of "normals" from accusing the concussed of all forms of manipulation, laziness and under achievement. This is real the recovery time is ongoing. Be encouraging do not act as a detractor. To all who have brain injuries believe in yourself and love every day.

I'm now 41 years old, 7 years ago I had a tbi, I fell off a roof landing on my head on the cement, this really has changed my life, I am a artist now and there is no way on eath I could draw a runni g stick man before I got hurt, Recovery is never easy what ever it is, but if you can somehow find the strengh to think positive, I should have a better recovery POSITIVE THINKING HAS SAVED MY LIFE


Awesome, awesome, awesome, 

I love this site. My 23 yr old son suffered a TBI 6 yrs ago. I read everything posted here. I learn something new everyday . I majored in nursing and psychology and thought I was prepared to deal with this. How wrong I was! His injury prompted his then 15 yr old sister to major in neuropsychology. She graduates this yr from Penn State. Her attitude changed from " I no longer have a brother" to learning to understand and accept her "new" brother...and wanting to help others like him. Everything happens for a reason!

This is my favorite place I love to visit. Jack from Mongolia.

I had a hemorrhagic stroke 5 yrs ago. Drs say I was lucky to survive. I have many residual effects..I'm now in a new state. Drs here say i did not have a stroKe. I'M very frustrated. I'm going to go to a neurological university in my prev state and get my follow-up

This is so depressing...on top of major depression. Just reinforces my feelings of inadequacy. And I'm a neuroscience RN. Haha... Well, I used to be, although I've kept my RN license current, just to make me feel like I'm worthwhile, although, I'm not.

And to top it off, in order to leave a comment, I have to try to decipher some weird code-garbled word, I've tried 3x, and I'm about to give up. I have a hard enough time just reading and comprehending normal typed words. Why do you make this so difficult? 

Thank you for putting up this web site. It's been very helpful to many of us. I had a tumor/cancer removed September 2012 in the frontal lobe . Please keep us getting better...

It cool it just gave me a answer about the brain

Wow! I love this page! Really useful

As someone with TLE and a brain tumor, I found this site informative. Thank you

It seems like the brain I'm left with after ruptured anuerism and stroke has at least one deficit from each part of the brain...

What a wonderful site and great service to the community. Thank you Brainline!!!

this website is the best! use this website because it is the best!

This website rocks :)

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This is a good website to the doctor and the people who want to become a doctor
It's a good information to know about Brain for people who don't know or people who have projects or homework. 😄
It's a good website to learn about brain parts
Very nice and informative. a thru and headshot left me missing ONE THIRD OF MY BRAIN MISSING
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