Another emotional change that commonly accompanies concussion and perhaps the one that needs most urgent intervention is irritability. Neuropsychologists Cynthia Boyd and Alison Cernich offer insight into some of the contributing factors.

Irritability After a TBI: Normal but Potentially Dangerous

"In the constellation of symptoms that I see in returning service members, one of the greatest behavioral symptoms is irritability…"

Sleep problems and headaches can both cause irritability as well as worsen it.

Discuss ways to manage situations that are frustrating and strategize about avoiding circumstances that can trigger outbursts. Anger management skills — including self-calming strategies, relaxation techniques, and communication methods — can be helpful as well. Consider referring the service member to a psychologist or other mental health worker who has experience with these techniques.