Brain Trauma, Concussion, and Coma

Peter M. Black, Patricio C. Gargollo, and Adam C. Lipson , The Dana Foundation
Brain Trauma, Concussion and Coma

Head trauma and the resulting brain injuries are one of the leading causes of death and disability in the industrialized world. In the United States, more than 50,000 people die every year as a result of traumatic brain injury. Furthermore, it is estimated that a head injury occurs every seven seconds, and hospital emergency rooms treat 1 million people for brain injuries every year. Currently about 5.3 million Americans — a little more than 2 percent of the U.S. population — live with disabilities resulting from such injuries.

Traumatic brain injury may occur at any age, but the peak incidence is among people between the ages of 15 and 24. Men are affected three to four times more often than women. Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause, accounting for approximately 50 percent of all cases. Falls produce the most brain injuries in people older than 60 and younger than 5. Other causes include violent assault and firearms misuse. It has been estimated that after one brain injury, the risk of a second injury is three times greater, and that after a second injury, the risk of a third is eight times greater.

There are many head injury symptoms, ranging in seriousness. Minor injuries will cause mild or no symptoms, while severe injuries will cause major derangement of function. The most common symptom of brain injury after head trauma is a disturbance of consciousness; some people remain awake, but others are confused, disoriented, or unconscious. Headache, nausea, and vomiting are other common symptoms.

Anyone who sustains a head injury should be examined by a physician. Symptoms of brain trauma can be initially subtle, seemingly unrelated to the head, and not immediately apparent. A person who has sustained a serious head injury should not be manipulated or moved by people who are not trained to do so, because this may aggravate an injury.

Diagnosing Brain Trauma

The first thing doctors do when assessing a head injury is determine whether the person is in imminent danger of death. Once the person’s vital functions are stabilized, physicians examine the individual from a neurological perspective, checking:

  • level of consciousness
  • function of the cranial nerves (through pupillary responses to light, eye movements, and facial symmetry)
  • motor function (strength, symmetry, and any abnormality of movements)
  • breathing rate and pattern (linked to brain stem function)
  • deep tendon reflexes, such as the knee jerk
  • sensory function, such as response to a pinprick
  • external signs of trauma, fracture, deformity, and bruising in the head and neck

Each of these parts of the physical exam will give a physician clues about the extent and location of any brain injury.

Doctors also need to know about the person’s behavior before, during, and after the injury. All of these points yield clues about what might have happened and how best to treat the person. Family members or people who witnessed the accident can usually provide helpful information. They can help medical professionals provide the best care possible by taking note of certain symptoms:

  • unusual sleepiness or difficulty awakening
  • mental confusion
  • convulsions
  • vomiting that continues or worsens
  • restlessness or agitation that continues or worsens
  • stiff neck
  • unequal pupil size or peculiar eye movements
  • inability to move arms and legs on either side
  • clear or bloody drainage from the ears or nose
  • bruising around the eyes or behind the ears
  • difficulty breathing

This is a partial list.

Physicians can use a variety of radiological tests to assess a person with head trauma. Most hospital emergency departments can now do computed tomography (CT) scans. CT provides more information, and is excellent for diagnosing skull fractures, bleeding, or other important lesions in the brain. CT also helps doctors follow people with head trauma as they recover. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) currently has little involvement in diagnosing and treating an emergency, but once a person’s condition is stable an MRI may provide useful information that a CT cannot, such as evidence of white matter damage.

Different types of injuries require particular treatments. Surgery is needed to remove blood or foreign material, or to reconstruct parts of the skull. Very often brain trauma causes tissue to swell against the inflexible bone. In these cases, a neurosurgeon may relieve the pressure inside the skull by placing a ventriculostomy drain that removes cerebrospinal fluid. If the swelling is massive, a neurosurgeon may remove a piece of the skull so that the brain has room to expand; the surgeon keeps and reimplants the bone after the swelling has gone down significantly. Often during these procedures, the surgeon places a small pressure valve inside the skull to measure pressure on a moment-to-moment basis.

Most nonsurgical management of brain trauma involves close monitoring, often in an intensive care unit, to prevent further injury. Physicians will conduct further neurological exams in order to assess whether the person is improving or worsening. Doctors have no “miracle drug” to prevent nerve injury or improve brain function immediately after trauma, but they can use medication to modify a person’s blood pressure, optimize the delivery of oxygen to the brain tissue, and prevent further brain swelling.

Specific Injuries in Head Trauma

Trauma to the head can produce many problems because so many components may be injured. Brain tissue is surrounded both by the skull and by a tough membrane called the dura, which is right next to the brain. Within, and surrounding, the brain tissue and dura are many arteries, veins, and important nerves (the cranial nerves). Therefore, trauma to the head may damage the skull, the blood vessels, the nerves, the brain tissue itself, or all of the above. Depending on the nature and severity of their injuries, people may exhibit a very wide range of symptoms: from absolutely none to coma.

Injuries to the Skull

Fractures of the skull can be divided into linear fractures, depressed fractures, and compound fractures. Linear fractures are simple “cracks” in the skull. Most require no treatment. The concern with these fractures is that a force large enough to break the skull may have damaged the underlying brain or blood vessels. This is especially true for fractures of the bottom, or “base,” of the skull.

Depressed skull fractures are those in which part of the bone presses on or into the brain. The extent of the damage depends on what part of the brain the depressed skull overlies, as well as the nature of any associated injuries to other tissues.

In compound fractures, the trauma is severe enough to break the skin, bone, and dura and expose the brain tissue. These types of fractures are usually associated with severe brain damage.

Treating skull fractures depends on the extent of damage to structures beneath the bone. Most linear fractures will not damage other structures unless the fractured bone becomes displaced and presses on the brain. In this case a surgical repair may be necessary to restore the bone to its normal position. Depressed skull fractures are usually also treated surgically in order to restore normal anatomy and prevent damage to underlying tissues by bone fragments.

Compound fractures are a special case since, by definition, there has been contact between the brain tissue and the outside air. These fractures therefore bring the possibility of infection from environmental debris. The fracture site is therefore vigorously cleaned and decontaminated before repair. In addition, these fractures are usually associated with severe injuries to the brain, blood vessels, and nerves, and repairing these structures may also be necessary.

Injuries Involving Vessels

Injuries to the blood vessels within the skull may lead to the collecting of blood in abnormal places. A collection of blood outside a vessel is called a hematoma. In all of the following types of hematomas, individuals are in danger if there is enough accumulating blood to press on the brain or other important structures within the skull. (In this respect, a head injury can resemble a hemorrhagic stroke.) In these cases, the hematoma may compress the brain and shift it from its normal position. Too much shifting can damage the crucial brain stem. Bleeding may also raise the pressure inside the skull to the point that it shuts off the blood supply to the brain (as in an ischemic stroke. These conditions can be very serious and require emergency surgery.

Epidural hematomas occur between the skull and the dura. These are usually caused by a direct impact injury that causes a forceful deformity of the skull. Eighty percent are associated with skull fractures across an artery called the middle meningeal artery. Because arteries bleed quickly, this type of injury can cause significant bleeding within the skull and require emergency surgery. Although uncommon (affecting only 0.5 percent of all head-injured individuals), epidural hematomas are a surgical emergency, and people with this type of injury must have the damage immediately repaired in the operating room.

Subdural hematomas appear between the dura and the surface of the brain. These are more common than epidural hematomas, occurring in about 30 percent of people with severe head trauma. They are produced by the rupture of small veins, so the bleeding is much slower than in epidural hematomas. A person with a subdural may have no immediate symptoms. As blood slowly collects within the skull, however, it compresses the brain and increases the intracranial pressure.

There are three types: acute, subacute, and chronic. The acute subdural may cause drowsiness or coma within a few hours and requires urgent treatment. A subacute subdural should be removed within one to two weeks. The most treacherous is a chronic subdural hematoma. It is not uncommon for such an injury to go undiagnosed for several weeks because individuals or their families do not recognize subtle symptoms. A person may appear well but nonetheless have a large subdural. That is why it is important for a heath professional to evaluate all individuals with head injuries. Depending on the symptoms and size of the subdural, treatment may involve careful monitoring or surgical removal of the blood.

Scans should be done on any person with prolonged headaches or other symptoms after head injury.

Intracerebral hematoma. Injuries to small blood vessels in the brain may also lead to bleeding within the brain tissue, called an intracerebral hematoma. The effect of this hematoma depends on how much blood collects, and where, and whether the bleeding continues. Doctors may respond conservatively, finding no need for treatment, or treat the problem as an emergency. More than half of people with intracerebral hematomas lose consciousness at the time of injury. There may be associated brain contusions with this hematoma.

Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bleeding may occur in a thin layer immediately surrounding the brain (the subarachnoid space). In head trauma, it is common to have some degree of subarachnoid hemorrhage, depending on the force applied to the head. In fact, subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most commonly diagnosed abnormality after head trauma. CT detects it in 44 percent of severe head trauma cases. Fortunately, individuals with subarachnoid hemorrhage but no other associated injuries usually do very well. However, they may get delayed hydrocephalus as a result of blockage of the flow of cerebrospinal fluid.

Injuries to the Brain Tissue

Our brains are somewhat mobile inside our skulls, which can give rise to other injuries. There are some spiny contours on the inside of the skull, but under normal circumstances a barrier of cerebrospinal fluid surrounds the brain and cushions it from direct contact with the hard bone. However, when a person’s head is subjected to violent forces, the brain may be forcibly rotated and battered within the skull. During such episodes brain tissue may be ripped, stretched, battered, and bruised. Bleeding, swelling, and further bruising of brain tissue usually follows. In these cases, people usually sustain permanent damage.

Injuries to the brain are classified according to the degree of tissue damage that they cause. It is important to remember that the different types of brain injuries are part of a spectrum. There may not be a clear distinction in every case, and one person may suffer multiple types of injuries.

Concussion. A concussion is a temporary and fully reversible loss of brain function caused by direct injury to the brain. It is the mildest form of brain injury, usually resulting from minor trauma to the head. In concussions, it is not possible to identify any structural damage to the brain tissue.

Contusion. Contusions are localized areas of “bruising” of the brain tissue. They consist of areas of swollen brain and blood that has leaked out of small arteries, veins, or capillaries. Contusions will often occur under the impact point on the skull (coup). They may also, in the same incident, occur on the side directly opposite the impact because the brain may rock away from the blow and strike the inside of the skull (contrecoup). Sometimes the skull is broken at the site of a contusion, but not always. Whatever the cause, contusions are likely to be most severe in the tips of the frontal and temporal lobes, after trauma forces these areas of the brain against bony ridges inside the skull.

Lacerations. Lacerations are actual tears in the brain tissue. They can be caused by shear forces placed on the brain, or by an object (such as a bullet) penetrating the skull and brain. The degree of damage depends on the depth and location of the laceration, as well as on whether associated blood vessels and cranial nerves suffer damage.

Diffuse axonal injury. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) refers to impaired function and eventual loss of axons (the long extensions of nerve cells, which enable them to communicate with one another). It is caused by the acceleration, deceleration, and rotation of the head during trauma, as in a car crash, probably the most frequent cause of this type of injury. These forces can stretch and shear axons. DAI is a microscopic injury that does not show up on a CT scan. Therefore, diagnosing DAI depends on physicians’ observations. Individuals with this sort of injury are usually unconscious for longer than six hours and, depending on the degree and location of axonal injury, may remain this way for days or weeks. DAI may be mild and reversible or, if extensive, may lead to severe brain damage or death. This is the most common cause of injury from high-velocity trauma and has no treatment.

Brain swelling and ischemia. Often, a person’s immediate injury may not be the worst. Usually, there is additional secondary injury to the brain that occurs hours to days later. The damage to the brain tissue, blood vessels, and nerves causes the brain to swell. If that swelling is severe, the blood supply to the brain may be blocked (ischemia), leading to tissue death. Also, since the brain is encased in a hard skull, the swelling may actually compress the tissue against bone. Excessive compression of areas such as the brain stem, which is responsible for regulating our breathing and consciousness (among other vital functions), can lead to severe disability and death.

Long-Term Outcome

Perhaps the most widely used system to predict outcome after head injury is the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The individual is evaluated in each of three parameters, and the sum of the three parts provides the total score.

People with mild head injury, usually defined as Glasgow Coma Score 13–15, tend to do very well. These individuals have often suffered concussions or minor degrees of brain swelling or contusion. Although headaches, dizziness, irritability, or similar symptoms may sometimes trouble them, most suffer no residual effects. For people with a simple concussion, the mortality rate is zero. Of people with mild brain swelling, fewer than 2 percent die.

People with moderate head injuries (GCS 9–12) do less well. Approximately 60 percent will make a good recovery, and another 25 percent or so will have moderate degrees of disability. Death or persistent vegetative state (PVS) will be the outcome for 7 percent to 10 percent. The remainder are usually left with severe disability.

People with severe head injuries (GCS under 8) have the worst prognoses. About 25 percent to 30 percent of these individuals have good long-term outcomes, 17 percent have moderate to severe disabilities, and 30 percent die. A small percentage remain in PVS.

In penetrating head injuries, such as those inflicted by bullets, the statistics are a bit different. Over half of all people with gunshot wounds to the head who are alive when they arrive at a hospital later die because their initial injuries are so severe. But the other half, with more mild injuries, usually do fairly well.

The outcome for people in coma after brain injury depends in part on their age. People under 20 are three times more likely to survive than those over 60. One study found that people who showed no motor response to painful stimuli and no pupillary response to light (normally our pupils get smaller when light is shone on them) 24 hours after brain injury were likely to die. However, the presence of both of these responses was a very positive finding, especially in young people.

Rehabilitation After Brain Injury

People who have suffered head trauma and resultant brain injury will often benefit from some physical therapy during their hospital stay or after they leave the hospital. If they are not acutely ill, moving to a rehabilitation program may speed any further recovery. These centers usually teach individuals strategies for reaching the maximum level of functioning their impairments allow. People sometimes have to relearn skills essential for everyday activities. Another major goal of these centers is to work with families to educate them about realistic future expectations and how they can best help their injured family member.

After brain trauma, individuals may have persistent cognitive or emotional disabilities that include:

  • short-term memory loss
  • long-term memory loss
  • slowed ability to process information
  • trouble concentrating or paying attention for periods of time
  • difficulty keeping up with a conversation
  • problems finding words
  • spatial disorientation
  • organizational problems and impaired judgment
  • inability to do more than one thing at a time

Physical consequences can include:

  • seizures
  • muscle weakness or spasticity
  • double vision or impaired vision
  • loss of smell or taste
  • speech impairments such as slow or slurred speech
  • headaches or migraines
  • fatigue, increased need for sleep
  • balance problems

Long-term recovery from brain injuries depends on many factors, including the severity of the trauma, associated injuries, and a person’s age. Unlike in the movies, people rarely recover their preinjury level of functioning after severe head trauma. Rather than emphasizing complete recovery, treatment aims to improve function, prevent further injury, and rehabilitate individuals and their families physically and emotionally.

About Peter M. Black
Peter M. Black, M.D., Ph.D., is Chief of Neurosurgery at Children's Hospital/Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University

About Patricio C. Gargollo
Patricio C. Gargollo, M.D., is a urologist, instructor of surgery at Harvard Medical School, and a fellow in pediatric urology at Children's Hospital Boston.

About Adam C. Lipson
Adam C. Lipson, M.D., is Resident Physician, Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle

Posted on BrainLine June 19, 2009

Bloom, F. E., Beal, M. F., & Kupfer, D. J. (2006). The Dana guide to brain health: a practical family reference from medical experts. New York: Dana.

From the Dana Foundation. Used with permission.


Hi My partner was in a car accident 3 weeks ago and when the weather got warmer over 75F he starts to overheat. If he doesn't get out of the warmth he gets the concussion symptoms back of , headachy, brain fog, and very tired. Asked two doctors now and both say not normal. Anyone have any suggestions? 

I have a friend who had a cyst growing behind her optic nerve. Surgery was done drilled a hole through her skull by way if nostrils. 5 surgeris later they cannot stop spinal fluids from leaking from her nose. Any recommendations for a better surgeon and where

My husband suffered a terrible accident and caused trauma in the brain and he got surgery and they placed his bone back. My mother in laws says that he hit pretty hard and that he will never be the same person. Is that true? Do injuries like this cause the person to stay the way they are or is there a chance that they can be normal again?

I'm sorry to hear about your mom. My brother was attacked and hit in the head several times. It's a nightmare. So I'm praying for you!!! But a nursing home isn't that much different then a hospital and if the hospital says she can't stay a nursing home is the best place to put her. They can give her round the clock care she needs. So I know it's tough to think of but unless you can afford to have round the clock care if you kept her at your home. But if you don't a nursing home is your best option. It' also has less patients then a hospital so she would be in good hands!!! I really hope this helps you out... May the Lord bless and keep you, your mother and family!!! 🙏🏼

Don't take her to a nursing home. Fight. She will not get the care she needs in a nursing home. The insurance companies just want her out. Keep her in the hospital.

My husband was in an accident and got a very bad brain injury and put in a coma for 7 days that he wasn't supposed to wake up from, doctors tell us he is a miracle. He suffers from major mood disorders and major bipolar disorder. He is a sweetheart one minute and a mean person the next. We have tried several medications and currently he is on Latuda, it was working at first and now it seems that he's so immune to it that it doesn't work anymore. I have been recently doing research to see if his brain can be surgically fixed, but haven't really found anything that's stuck out. I want my loving husband back, what do I do, what is the next step to try or path to go down?

In response to January 24th question.  There are a list of tests that can and should be done to assist in the diagnosis and decisions for people diagnosed as vegetative.  The issue is hospitals are put on tight time lines anymore.  I read a study that shows that over 40% of TBI patients in nursing care are misdiagnosed as vegetative when they are minimally conscious.  Decisions are forced to be made too soon and with not enough information to do so in many cases.  Go to and I would be happy to send you any information and/or contacts I have that can help you.

I had a car accident two weeks ago. I had pain in my head and felt unwell. I thought it might be because of injury. I had my CT scan done and they found blood in the right side of the brain. I feel very sleepy and get pain in my head. The doctors are going to perform surgery tomorrow to take the blood out. I hope I get normal again

Your comment stood out to me about your mother, please don't lose hope! My mother on January 25, 2016 suffered from extensive brain damage and was in a coma for two weeks then she was in a locked in state couldn't move an inch of her body and was well unaware. She had a trach and feeding tube and was sent straight out to a nursing home becasue we had no choice due to insurance purposes. It's Febuary 2nd and my mom is going home Wednesday February 8th it has been a long slow process, but God has healed her tremendously she is not 100% back but she no longer has a trach she feeds herself and can walk with a walker. There is always hope!

I had a concussion to the back of my head when I fell on the bedroom wood floor at 4am on 5/28/16. When I fell, I passed out and it woke up my husband. Thank goodness that my husband called 911 and didn't just put be back in bed! I spent the next 12 days in the hospital and I can only remember about 10 minutes of it. Come to find out that my brain had bounced to the front of my head and that caused bruising and bleeding inside my brain. (Even now I can't remember the wording for the kind of hemorrhage that I had) Could barely walk without help when I got home. In August 2016 (2 mo later) I started to have really bad headaches 24 hrs a day. Previous to this I was prone to migraines and had the Meds that worked, but not for the headaches I was having. Tylenol didn't faze it either. Had a Dr. visit with a neurologist and he Rx Topamax. There was about a two week graduated increase in the pills and I finally didn't have any headaches. My brain was scrambled... I couldn't even remember plain words like fork or coat, etc. Even now I have a hard time remembering, but if I can't, my husband will give me clues on the words I can't find and then all of a sudden I remember. But by the next day, I have forgotten it again! Found out from another Dr that Topamax doesn't help with gaining your memory back after the concussion...😟 Not a happy camper now. I liked not having a headache/migraine all the time. By the middle of December 2016 I weaned myself off of the Topamax. Yeah, no more headaches! Ok, now it is almost the end of January 2017 and my brain is still on partial empty. Neurologist told me in 8/16 it could take 6 months for my brain to be normal. (I haven't gone back to see him, he was worthless.) Then I heard from another Dr that it could be about a year to recover. Then I read an article on the internet that it could be a year plus before my brain works again correctly. This upsets me, because I used to have a great brain memory. Now I'm looking into healthy vitamins etc for some help. I wish everybody and their families the best with their recovery!

My mother was in a very bad car accident the doctor diagnosed her with Diffuse Axonal Injury. They told us she will never wake up. She is on the trech to help her breath with the shunt and feeding tube. Any suggestions on what I can do to help my mother? I know God is going to wake her up. I have hope but the ICU wants us to take her to nursing home and that's one place I don't want my mom to be in. Any suggestions? Please. God bless you all.

Fish oils...Omega 3's does help lower inflammation in the brain. Also play brain wave music to comatose patients with a pair of lightweight headphones if the hospital will allow. Plenty of free music on the Internet. Essential oils also helps, Frankincense is good. Where it on your clothes whenever you're with the patient, or rub on big toe of each foot.

Fish oil is meaningless, but I know you mean no harm by your comments

I would suggest looking into nutrition for brain, fish oil, phos choline and seine, coconut oil , b vits and also vielight neuro unit. I had a concussion and did all these things, chiropractic. Fish oil reduces brain swelling, helps heal your brain. Has been 7 months for me and am back to normal. I had light and sound sensitivity,headaches, anxiety,poor memory function, all gone now.

I wish you all well.


My Friend's younger sister had a accident and she suffered head injury after which she has severe edema (Swelling in brain) because of which they had to cut bone from both sides of the brain. she is unconscious for the last one week and her GCS level is 5 and not increasing they have removed her from the Ventilator but they have placed a tracheotomy tube through which they say that she will be able to breath .. she is not responding to anything and her body is stiff no movement what so ever and she has multiple fractures in the body.. I wanna know is there anyone who can help me she is 23 and we wanna know if anyone can help and also tell me when she will be able to wake up and will she be normal like before 

Sorry to hear you're still being affected from your concussion. Chiropractic really helped me.

You could have post concussive syndrome

I got a concussion a year ago sept 30th. I'm still having trouble with brightness. I wear sunglasses in stores, on cloudy days,etc. I can't see at night. I lose words and slur when tired or stressed. If someone interrupts me or changes my plans I lose my thoughts. I still walk crooked and slow. I have ringing in my ears, headaches, migraines, a lot of pressure in my head and trouble sleeping. My vision is messed up. I can't remember stuff. However, I can drive short distances now, as long as nothing unexpected happens to throw me off. I can read, watch some tv and do a little computer work. I'm so much better than I was. Doctor told me to sit in my chair for 10 months with no reading, tv, computer, noise, bright lights, writing. It was lonely. I'm able to cook some now if I remember I'm cooking. I still burn things because I forget. My head has a ton of pressure and a very painful spot where I got hit. I wish they'd done a scan on me or addressed the liquid coming out of my ears.

Excellent article. I've had a concussion comma for 2 weeks, that I almost fully recovered from in a year. And then one year and a half later, I had TBI that keeps getting worse and worse is from (Army) repetitive ammunition blast shock injury that destroys the nerves through ultrasonic and supersonic or subsonic energies. This form most closely matches up to your Diffuse Axonal Injuries. It only took 3 days without earplugs (by Order) on the firing range to have ALL TBI symptoms immediately.

I later find out heavy plastic ear muffs are better for supersonic blasts and foam ear plugs are better for infrasonic (or subsonic) blasts: of which I could have neither. It's a shame all US Army and Marine vets get their brains scrambled for a lifetime of misery. I've had 90 dB tinnitus and no sleep for over 34 years, and it took me 30 years to get 10% tinnitus disability rating ($130/mo - whoopee!): with the VA and (Army and Marines) Services well knowing supply clerks who drive on the firing ranges without earplugs with rifle and mortar explosions have their brains scrambled for life. I now have difficulty remembering why I am walking in rooms (after over 34 years of breathing problems from DAI of brain stem (just got a bi-pap machine last month), anxiety, depression, Maniere's Disorder/vertigo, and all the rest of tbi symptoms. )

Veterans need your brilliance on a shell shock phenomena that has been well known since gun powder wars were invented. I've had both, and appropriately disclosed, concussions will heal for the most part in about a year (with hard work and being young.) Now if you could focus in on the number one reason for suicides in the nation (Army and Marine disabled Vets), it would be blessing for all Army and Marine disabled vets and their families they support.


My comment regards the concussion I suffered in 1980  when I was 24; inclusive was my 5 days in a coma. All items considered, I can proclaim that I am a very fortunate man to have lived the accomplished & fulfilling life dealt to me since then. What brings me here is to be educated on long term effects of a concussion. Fortunately, the only nagging, recurring, negative effect so far has been the daily headaches since 1989 or 1990. Recently however, I'm experiencing some lightheadedness. I found that a amino acid duplex that increases nitrogen monoxide in my blood helps me neurologically.

My boyfriend just fractured his skull it was a depressed fracture. the hospital have now said there may be traces of his skull near and inside his brain and there are possibilities of blood clotting and has to have further sugary. Can anyone help me expect what the surgery involves as i know nothing and am panicking. 

My grandpa slipped and fell backwards on concrete, hitting the back of his head causing his brain to hit the front, resulting in a brain bleed. He was in a coma for 3 months. The Dr.'s wanted to pull his life support, but his family said no. When he came out of the coma, he could remember things from when he was a child, but not who his wife of 50 years was, or any of his family born within that time. The doctors said he'd be a vegetable for the rest of his life. Well, 4 years after, he is about 75% better! He still mixes up words occasionally, but he can  now remember his family and his grandkids names. He can walk short distances, and he's got a good sense of humor! Dr.'s said he would have no quality of life. Well, he proved them wrong!

I fell down or up the stairs at home 5/31. Knocked myself unconscious and a family member found me. I came to and was put in the bed. Woke up that same morning and felt funny and still went to work. Came home that night and laid on the couch and could barely move or talk with a massive headache for 2 days. Throwing up water because I couldn't eat. Finally went to the ER 6/2. They did a CT scan of head and neck. Sent me home with pain meds and said follow up with your doctor. 6/7 saw my doctor and was admitted to the hospital. They ran multiple test. I have a fractured skull, hemmoraging in the brain with bruising swelling and contusions. I was released 6/13 evening. Cannot drive. Cannot work. Follow up with neurologist and primary care physician Monday 6/20.

It has been 9 months a since my head injury and I am still having headaches dizziness and neurological symptoms. I am having aching and burning sensations in head Ear and face .I pray each day that God will help me cope and I pray for all of you out there that is going thru the same thing. God bless.

All, there is hope.  My son was injured in very bad car accident about a year ago.  He suffered a TBI with diffuse axonal injuries.  He was in a coma...the whole nine yards.  Doctors were not optimistic.  I prayed to God and asked him to restore my son.  HE DID IT! As I write this, it is 13 months since the accident and my son is here with me.  He is his "pre-injury" self.  God is good and he is REAL.  Pray!

I was in a car accident passenger side I hit my head with the dash board dint think it was a big deal till three months later I got neck pain a headache on top of my head panic attacks. I got an MRI done they said I had nothing. my neck nothing that it was muscle spasms I was like this more months I hated medication I used a lot of ice and cold patches and teas. eventually all if it went away this was 3 years ago .

I suffered a concussion. I had a biking accident. I fell of my mountain bike I hit the ground head first. I regret my injury, i know everything happens for a reason. It has been 3 weeks, I don't feel like myself anymore. I'm living in fear because my body doesn't feel the same. I'm crying but I thank you all for your post. I love y'all and I hope the best for whoever is reading this blog. I know our pain.

My bf has been in a coma for 3 weeks and 2 days now and they say he has ~~Subarachnoid hemorrhage and diffuse axonal injury... i dont know what to do or who knows much about this but the doctors seem to have little hope.

When traveling by himself, my brother-in-law fell and hit his head on pavement, knocking himself unconscious. He seemed fine initially, but passed away two days later from "a simple slip and fall." He was 47 years old. If you or your loved one has any form of head injury, please go to an emergency room as soon as possible.

I had an accident 8 years ago. I'm 24 years old now. Some of the area near the eye and nose have been broken and removed. I feel now my head is not stable and pain. What can i do ??

Very informative & straight forward. Your article reminded me, circumstances could be much worse. I have an unhealed concussion, 3 months after being hit from behind, by another car going too fast on the highway! I worry it is taking an awful long time to heal.....but eventually it should.

My partner was in a coma for 2&1/2 weeks last year and has severe nerve damage causing loss of use of his lower left leg, we are struggling to understand how/ why this happened. The coma was a result of a huge overdose during a psychotic episode. Any advice would be gratefully received 

Has there ever been any studies with the brain after extended amounts of Anesthesia?  At 9 yrs old (in 1980) I had 15 surgeries but one in particular was over 15 hours long.  The doctors warned my parents I may have brain damage.  When I awoke after 2 weeks in a coma I was communicating with the deaf alphabet.  But, how can I possibly have brain damage and then nothing?  I feel like there would be a grey area in  between.

 I have always said my memory is bad and that I have a difficult time learning new things.  I am often told how to do something a few different times before I catch on.  I also feel fine and then Bam!  I hit a wall and need to sleep or at least get rest for awhile.  I feel like there should be more research on extreme amounts of anesthesia.  Any resources would REALLY help!

Would you suggest some productive ways to improve/regain cognitive function post-concussion?

Is decorticate posturing common with severe brain injury during the early weeks? If a patient begins to bend his/her legs and move them a lot, and lift the arms up and down (sometimes in response to instruction), but the hands remain sort of curled (however not glued to the chest), is this progress?

Thanks for the great info.

I've suffered two, that is two traumatic brain injuries putting me in a coma both times.  My first traumatic brain injury put into a coma for 4 days.  The second traumatic brain injury I suffered put me into a coma for 3 days.  Repercussions from my first traumatic brain injury include a severe short term memory impairment alongside enforced petit-mal epilepsy forcing me suffer at absolute least one petit-mal seizure every single day. My second brain injury enforced me suffering at least one petit-mal seizure everyday.  Oftentimes, I'd suffer more than one seizure everyday.  Thereafter, a neurologist named me an "epileptic," and prescribed me aplenty medication to ingest everyday named Kepra beside Lamictal.  Unfortunately, aplenty medication was not ending my seizure disorder.  That is why 11-years after my first brain injury doctors implanted a vagus nerve stimulator into my chest.  Unfortunately, my VNS does not stop my seizures being reason I awaited a total of over 14-years before I finally had brain surgery; and a brain surgeon is able to remove the brain bruise I suffered after my first traumatic brain injury. Brain surgery being successful does end my seizure disorder until I suffered another traumatic brain injury that restarted my epileptic seizure disorder existing. "Could be worse," is a sentence I say out loud, and internally, so I'm able to take a step back, and enter "perspective" mind power calming my pessimistic mindset.  

Great article

your article helped me greatly, many questions were answered , thank you .

I had glasgow scale 7 and i was in coma for 17days, i feel stress and pressure very easly i just happy to b alive .

The info in this article is just what I needed.  Thank you!

I suffered a concussion and subarachnoid hemorrhage in Dec. 2014.  I found this article to be comforting as I had read many articles giving me the impression I needed to get my affairs in order!  Thanks

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