McKee, AC, Cantu, RC, Nowinski, CJ, Hedley-Whyte, ET, Gavett, BE, Budson, AE, Santini, VE, Lee, H, Kubilus, CA, & Stern, RA. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology: July 2009, Vol 68 (7), pp 709-735.
The authors present a literature review of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), which is a slowly progressive brain disease and degeneration caused by repetitive brain trauma. CTE can result in memory disturbances, behavioral and personality changes, parkinsonism, and speech and gait difficulties. The authors also report findings of CTE in three professional athletes, two boxers, and a football player.