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Brain Basics

Comments [26]

Brian King, BrainLine.org

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Brain Basics
Frontal Lobes
Parietal Lobes
Temporal Lobes
Occipital Lobes
Cerebellum
Brain Stem
Hypothalamus
Pituitary Gland
Amygdala
Hippocampus
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Brain Basics

Brain Basics

Introduction

The brain is incredibly complex. Here we’ll show you the major parts, where they are located, and some of what they are responsible for. As each view and section appear, you’ll see a description here. The description will include what might happen when different areas of the brain are injured.

Please keep in mind that brain injuries can be as complex as the brain itself. A blow to one part of the head can potentially cause damage on the opposite side or even throughout the brain.

Touch the play button or the image of the next slide to begin.

To learn more about what happens when the brain is injured, please see the resources below.

Frontal Lobes

Frontal Lobes

Located behind the forehead, the frontal lobes are the largest lobes of the brain. They are prone to injury because they sit just inside the front of the skull and near rough bony ridges. These two lobes are involved in:

  • planning & organizing
  • problem solving & decision making
  • memory & attention
  • controlling behavior, emotions & impulses

The left frontal lobe plays a large role in speech and language.

Problems After Injury

Injury to the frontal lobes may affect:

  • emotions & impulses
  • language
  • memory
  • social and sexual behavior
Parietal Lobes

Parietal Lobes

Located behind the frontal lobes, the parietal lobes:

  • integrate sensory information from various parts of the body
  • contain the primary sensory cortex, which controls sensation (touch, hot or cold, pain)
  • tell us which way is up
  • help to keep us from bumping into things when we walk

Problems After Injury

Damage to the parietal lobes may result in:

  • an inability to locate parts of your body
  • an inability to recognize parts of your body

Temporal Lobes

Temporal Lobes

The temporal lobes are located on the sides of the brain under the parietal lobes and behind the frontal lobes at about the level of the ears. They are responsible for:

  • recognizing and processing sound
  • understanding and producing speech
  • various aspects of memory

Problems After Injury

Damage to specific parts of the temporal lobe can result in:

  • hearing loss
  • language problems
  • sensory problems like the inability to recognize a familiar person’s face

Occipital Lobes

Occipital Lobes

Located at the lower back of the head, the occipital lobes:

  • receive and process visual information
  • contain areas that help in perceiving shapes and colors

Problems After Injury

Damage to the occipital lobes can cause:

  • visual field defects
  • distorted perceptions of size, color, and shape

Cerebellum

Cerebellum

Located at the back of the brain, the cerebellum controls:

  • balance
  • movement
  • coordination

The cerebellum also allows us to:

  • stand upright
  • keep our balance
  • move around

Problems After Injury

Damage to the cerebellum can result in:

  • uncoordinated movement
  • loss of muscle tone
  • an unsteady gait

Brain Stem

Brain Stem

Located at the base of the brain, the brainstem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla. It regulates basic involuntary functions necessary for survival such as:

  • breathing
  • heart rate
  • blood pressure
  • swallowing

It also plays a role in alertness and sensation.

Problems After Injury

Injury to the brainstem can disrupt basic functions so that they are no longer regulated automatically. These functions can include:

  • heart rate
  • breathing
  • swallowing
Hypothalamus

Hypothalamus

Located below the thalamus and above the brain stem, the hypothalamus:

  • helps us regulate body temperature
  • helps us realize when we are hungry or thirsty
  • plays a role in what mood we might be feeling
  • releases and controls many hormones that we need to function

Injury to the hypothalamus may affect:

  • sex drive
  • sleep
  • hunger
  • thirst
  • emotions
Pituitary Gland

Pituitary Gland

Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland:

  • regulates and releases important hormones to our body
  • plays a big part of our overall well-being

Injury to the pituitary gland may affect:

  • growth in children
  • blood pressure
  • fatigue
  • depression
  • sex drive
  • body temperature
  • pain
Amygdala

Amygdala

Located near the hippocampus in the frontal portion of the temporal lobes, the amygdala:

  • are invovled in the formation and storage of information related to emotional events
  • facilitate long-term memory formation
  • convert and retain learning from pleasure responses
  • help us recognize when we are in danger or fearful of something

Injury to the amygdala may affect:

  • memory formation
  • emotional sensitivity
  • learning and rentention
  • depression
  • anxiety
Hippocampus

Hippocampus

The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe. The cells in the hippocampus are hypersensitive to oxygen loss or lower blood flow in the case of a brain injury. The hippocampus:

  • is responsible for memory creation and retention
  • helps us create new memories
  • helps us orient ourselves in our surroundings
  • facilitates our ability to navigate and find our way around the world

Injury to the hippocampus may affect:

  • new memory creation
  • new memory retention
  • mood
  • confusion
  • disorientation

BrainLine.org

Comments [26]

The probable cause of pain on the right frontal lobe is simply a migraine headache. Take solace in the fact that the brain is incapable of producing pain.

Apr 15th, 2016 12:14am

I am experiencing constant debilitating pain on the right side of my frontal lobe, do you have any idea what the cause of this could be?

Jan 7th, 2016 6:10pm

I definitely learned things that I did not know before!

-Parker Deal. (Mrs.Norris' Intro To Psych.)

Aug 29th, 2015 2:03pm

Each brain injury is unique. The most important thing the community surrounding the brain injured could add to the great progress occurring is to stop the community of "normals" from accusing the concussed of all forms of manipulation, laziness and under achievement. This is real the recovery time is ongoing. Be encouraging do not act as a detractor. To all who have brain injuries believe in yourself and love every day.

Aug 6th, 2015 3:52pm

I'm now 41 years old, 7 years ago I had a tbi, I fell off a roof landing on my head on the cement, this really has changed my life, I am a artist now and there is no way on eath I could draw a runni g stick man before I got hurt, Recovery is never easy what ever it is, but if you can somehow find the strengh to think positive, I should have a better recovery POSITIVE THINKING HAS SAVED MY LIFE JORDY JOHNSON WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/WESTCOASTFUSIONART

May 29th, 2015 3:34am

Awesome, awesome, awesome, 

Mar 2nd, 2015 12:06am

I love this site. My 23 yr old son suffered a TBI 6 yrs ago. I read everything posted here. I learn something new everyday . I majored in nursing and psychology and thought I was prepared to deal with this. How wrong I was! His injury prompted his then 15 yr old sister to major in neuropsychology. She graduates this yr from Penn State. Her attitude changed from " I no longer have a brother" to learning to understand and accept her "new" brother...and wanting to help others like him. Everything happens for a reason!

Sep 21st, 2014 2:58am

This is my favorite place I love to visit. Jack from Mongolia.

Jul 20th, 2014 10:10am

I had a hemorrhagic stroke 5 yrs ago. Drs say I was lucky to survive. I have many residual effects..I'm now in a new state. Drs here say i did not have a stroKe. I'M very frustrated. I'm going to go to a neurological university in my prev state and get my follow-up

Jun 16th, 2014 10:55am

This is so depressing...on top of major depression. Just reinforces my feelings of inadequacy. And I'm a neuroscience RN. Haha... Well, I used to be, although I've kept my RN license current, just to make me feel like I'm worthwhile, although, I'm not.

And to top it off, in order to leave a comment, I have to try to decipher some weird code-garbled word, I've tried 3x, and I'm about to give up. I have a hard enough time just reading and comprehending normal typed words. Why do you make this so difficult? 

Jun 14th, 2014 12:03pm

Thank you for putting up this web site. It's been very helpful to many of us. I had a tumor/cancer removed September 2012 in the frontal lobe . Please keep us getting better...

May 25th, 2014 11:11pm

It cool it just gave me a answer about the brain

May 13th, 2014 2:17pm

Wow! I love this page! Really useful

May 11th, 2014 2:22am

As someone with TLE and a brain tumor, I found this site informative. Thank you

Mar 1st, 2014 10:12pm

It seems like the brain I'm left with after ruptured anuerism and stroke has at least one deficit from each part of the brain...

Mar 1st, 2014 4:27pm

What a wonderful site and great service to the community. Thank you Brainline!!!

Jan 29th, 2014 7:45am

this website is the best! use this website because it is the best!

Dec 5th, 2013 8:38am

:) :p

Dec 5th, 2013 8:36am

This website rocks :)

Dec 2nd, 2013 12:00pm

This is a great website! A future psychologist could really use this great information! 💛💚💜💙💝

Nov 2nd, 2013 11:05pm

This is a good website to the doctor and the people who want to become a doctor

Sep 25th, 2013 11:49am

It's a good information to know about Brain for people who don't know or people who have projects or homework. 😄

Sep 3rd, 2013 1:56pm

It's a good website to learn about brain parts

Sep 3rd, 2013 10:49am

Very nice and informative. Battleforhue.com a thru and headshot left me missing ONE THIRD OF MY BRAIN MISSING

Apr 12th, 2013 9:13am

it\'s good website and helpfull for us

Feb 19th, 2013 12:38pm

this is a good website and I love it helps with home work on the brain and some of the injures on the brain

Feb 4th, 2013 2:02pm

 

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