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Headaches After Traumatic Brain Injury

Comments [35]

Kathleen R. Bell, MD, Jeanne Hoffman, PhD, and Thomas Watanabe, MD, Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center

Headaches After Traumatic Brain Injury

Headache is one of the most common symptoms after traumatic brain injury (often called “post-traumatic headache”). Over 30% of people report having headaches which continue long after injury.

Why are headaches a problem after brain injury?

Headaches after TBI can be long-lasting, coming and going even past one year. Headaches can make it hard for you to carry out daily activities or can cause you to have more difficulty thinking and remembering things.

Why do headaches happen after brain injury?

Right after a severe TBI, people may have headaches because of the surgery on their skulls or because they have small collections of blood or fluid inside the skull.

Headaches can also occur after mild to moderate injury or, in the case of severe TBI, after the initial healing has taken place. These headaches can be caused by a variety of conditions, including a change in the brain caused by the injury, neck and skull injuries that have not yet fully healed, tension and stress, or side effects from medication.

What are some typical kinds of headaches after TBI?

Migraine headaches

These kinds of headaches happen because an area of the brain becomes hypersensitive and can trigger a pain signal that spreads out to other parts of the brain (like the ripples that spread out after you drop a pebble in water). These headaches typically have the following features:

  • Dull, throbbing sensation, usually on one side of the head.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Light and sound sensitivity.
  • Pain level rated as moderate to severe.
  • You might get a “warning” signal that a migraine is coming on, such as seeing spots or bright lights. This is called an “aura.”

Tension-type headaches

These headaches are associated with muscle tension or muscle spasms and stress. They usually have the following features:

  • Tight, squeezing sensation, often around the entire head or on both sides.
  • Pain level rated as mild to moderate.
  • Occur later in the day.

Cervicogenic headaches

This type of headache can occur when there has been some injury to the muscles and soft tissues in the neck and the back of the head. Many nerves that are located in the tissues and bones of the neck have branches that travel to the skull and scalp and can result in head pain. This type of headache usually has these features:

  • Often start in the neck, shoulders and back of the head, and sometimes travel over the top of the head.
  • Neck movement or positioning can make the pain worse.
  • These headaches are not usually associated with nausea and can range from mild to severe.

Rebound headaches

Sometimes the very medicines used to treat headaches can actually cause headaches. When pain medicines are taken daily on a regular schedule, missing one or two doses can result in a headache.

You also can develop a rebound headache if you decrease the amount of caffeine you use. For example, if you normally drink a lot of coffee, tea or energy drinks but don’t get your usual amount, you may get a headache.

Other facts about headaches

Although there are many other types of headaches, these are the most frequent. It is not unusual for someone to have two different types of headache. For certain headaches like migraine, a family history is common.

Should I worry about having a headache?

Most headaches are not dangerous. In the first few days after a concussion or head injury, a person should see a health care professional experienced in treating persons with brain injuries IF the following occurs:

  • Your headache gets worse.
  • You have nausea and/or vomiting with a headache.
  • You develop arm or leg weakness or problems speaking along with a headache.
  • You have increasing sleepiness with headache.

Do I need special tests to diagnose a headache?

In the first few days after a head injury, doctors will often order a CT scan of your brain to make sure there is no bleeding in your head. After that, a brain scan or other test is rarely needed in order to diagnose a headache accurately.

Usually, the health care provider will rely on your history and symptoms to sort out what kind of headache you are having and how to treat it.

What can be used to treat a headache after TBI?

This will depend on each individual case. It’s important to discuss your headaches with your doctor and to keep track of headaches and your response to treatment. Many people use a headache diary to help them do this.

Lifestyle changes to help prevent headaches

The first steps in treating any type of headache don’t involve drugs or other therapy. Many times, lifestyle factors can trigger headaches or make headaches worse. Making simple changes can often make a big difference in whether or not headaches occur. Try to:

  • Get enough sleep.
  • Get daily exercise. Aerobic exercise such as walking and good stretching often help to prevent headaches by improving sleep and decreasing triggers. If a headache is worsened by any particular exercise, check with your health care provider.
  • Avoid caffeine.
  • Avoid certain foods that may trigger a headache, like red wine, monosodium glutamate (MSG, a common food additive) or certain cheeses.
  • Avoid taking pain medicines on a daily basis unless your health care provider prescribes it.

Common types of treatment for occasional headaches include:

  • Over-the-counter pain medicines like acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or ibuprofen.
  • Prescription medicines for migraine headache like sumatriptan (Imitrex®).
  • Relaxation therapy/meditation.
  • Biofeedback therapy.
  • Stretching and self-massage.
  • Acupuncture.
  • Local injections (numbing medication or steroids, or for example) to muscles, nerves or joints of the cervical spine.
  • Therapeutic massage.
  • Heat or ice packs.

Treatments for recurrent headaches that happen more than twice a week

Headaches that occur frequently may require a prescription from your physician. The following medications may be used to treat headaches following TBI:

  • Antidepressants.
  • Antiseizure medicines (like gabapentin, also called Neurontin®).
  • Certain blood pressure medication called beta-blockers (like propranolol).
  • Botulinum toxin (Botox) injections.


  1. Hoge CW, McGurk D, Thomas JL, Cox, AL, Engel CC, Castro C A (2008). Mild traumatic brain injury in u.S. Soldiers returning from iraq. N Engl J Med, 358(5), 453-463.
  2. Lahz S, Bryant RA (1996). Incidence of chronic pain following traumatic brain injury. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 77(9), 889-891.
  3. Lew HL, Lin PH, Fuh JL, Wang SJ, Clark DJ, Walker WC (2006). Characteristics and treatment of headache after traumatic brain injury: A focused review. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 85(7), 619-627.
  4. Marcus DA (2003). Disability and chronic posttraumatic headache. Headache, 43(2), 117-121.
  5. Mihalik JP, Stump JE, Collins MW, Lovell MR, Field M, Maroon JC (2005). Posttraumatic migraine characteristics in athletes following sports-related concussion. J Neurosurg, 102(5), 850-855.

Headaches After Traumatic Brain Injury was developed by Kathleen R. Bell, MD, Jeanne Hoffman, PhD, and Thomas Watanabe, MD, in collaboration with the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center. Copyright © 2010 by University of Washington/MSKTC. http://www.msktc.org. Please check the MSKTC site for any recent updates on this article.

Comments [35]

I am a 49 yr.old female with daily migraines, due to 2 TBIs in the past 2 yrs. Today, I was ordered a CT with dye, and MRI. The TBI's have ruined my every day functioning, with a constant ringing in my ears. I also suffer with a pulsing in my brain. My doctor actually canceled my appointment to see him, and have my X-rays. I am sitting here with an onset of a migraine and cannot refill my migraine meds for another 14 days. I have had 3 brain aneurysms. Guess the doctor didn't want to be late for dinner. As far as taste and smell goes. I guess I am fortunate.

Dec 27th, 2016 3:00pm

I suffered a occipital skull fracture with a bleed November 17, 2015.  I am being sent to investigate the headaches to a neurologist?  I will probably have another CT scan.  I take Ultram and percocet daily to try and get it before one starts.  I am 56 years old and have been told that sometimes when you are older it takes longer for the headaches to stop.  I also have absolutely no sense of smell or taste.  This is a bit frustrating and I have lost 40 pounds simply not being able to taste.  I now eat simply to keep going.  I wonder if anyone else has no smell or taste from a TBI?  The neurologist is also apparently going to evaluate why that is still there because it is apparently not normal.  I am so grateful to still be here with my family and know it could have been MUCH worse.  God Bless all of you.and any comments are welcome

Nov 6th, 2016 6:37pm

Yes I had to go back because I had blood on brain they did not treat it right away as what should have done from day one if there is loose blood anywhere in body where it's not suppose to be I had a stroke have of body got numb then they put me on wrong meds I knew I died but God brought me back and gold me I have to tell everyone his name so that's what Jim doing but I had to have surgery where the blood was removed but I still have complications because they took took long to do surgery and gave me wrong treatment before the surgery

Oct 9th, 2016 10:12pm

2013 auto accident, mild head concussion. It's now 2016 and I still get terrible head pain (day or even in the middle of night). I wonder why still everyday. I use to work, and loved chatting. Now my head says stay away.I  can't take too many distractions, noise or lights, movements too can cause me to become dizzy. I have been nauseous at times. I rest almost everyday, since night sleep changed some. So wondering do I have to live this way forever ? Thank you. Gailann

Oct 7th, 2016 6:05pm

Crystal I've had same as you on 3rd July 3am diagnosed with bleed to brain. "Minor" they called it. My head's numb at top from an attack. I was hit in forehead and bleeds at back of head -- a contusion. But worried sick it will reside again. How have you been? I've had no headaches, just numbness, feel not me, and weak. Tell me how you are now. Did you need to go back at all? please xx

Jul 10th, 2016 7:51am

I was diagnosed yesterday morning around 3am in the ER. I am now home, after two cats scans, the second of which proved that the bleeding had stopped and swelling was going down. I was MORE than ready to just be home, to suffer in my own bed if my life wasn't in danger. The pain had subsided to the point of "bearable." Only when I came down from meds did I realize that I was doped to the gills and that might be why. 

Here I sit with a headache that has come back almost full force. I have more dope, lol, but I'm not that interested, I'm more interested in NOT DYING. 

Is there a way for the bleeding and swelling to recede enough to have a famous neurosurgeon send me home, then relapse? Or is it just the dreaded ongoing rolling headaches that I may experience for years? I really don't want to go trouncing BACK to the hospital for another few thousand bucks of diagnosis just to have them tell me that I'm being paranoid, and that they warned me that it wasn't the end of it. 

I called and asked the nurse and she said to take the medication I was given and give it some time. But I just don't KNOW!!!!

Jun 21st, 2016 4:52pm

I was rear-ended by a drunk driver Sept 2013.... I was sitting at a red light and she hit me going over 100km hr. I hit my head hard... Was knocked out and suffered a horrendous concussion. I have a very severe headache everyday. It's like the worst hangover ... I don't want to put my feet on the ground or open my eyes or talk to anyone. I have 5 young children to care for daily...n I try to get up and smile and laugh and never let anyone know the pain I'm suffering. I have acupuncture every 2 weeks ( the first 2 days after the pain is worse...n your body is cleansing itself so you have to drink lots of water... This helps - but for 12 days I have some relief. I never go out without my sunglasses! I also now take 150mg of aspirin everyday. This works better than Advil or Aleve ... Some days I take 325 mg of aspirin ... Plus Tylenol or Advil or aleve. Air pressure ( rain storms or snow storms) leaves me unable to get out of bed. I am about to try Botox ... N ultrasound on my brain stem.... I also had whiplash... N injured my arm neck and back. I refuse to let this beat me! We must all fight for knowledge new treatments and new ( non addictive) medication. I will NOT take pain killers. I have seen many car accident victims lives destroyed by this. I do Google and research n contact study groups at Harvard ... Duke University...etc and contact neurologists for any alternative solutions. I cannot get upset or exercise or do anything that increases my blood pressure.... Or my head pounds even more. Living in pain is horrible. Make sure you all have good supportive friends n family. I hate to ask for help... Just like all of you. So let's keep sharing anything we discover that helps us ( : The doctors are listening and new progress is being made. Don't suffer in silence.

May 27th, 2016 12:25am

Yes, my TBI gave me headaches, but luckily mine have been successfully treated with glasses. i was diagnosed with vertical heterophoria. when i hit my hit in a car accident, it jostled my brain but also my eyes. eye muscles gave out and that caused the VH which resulted in headaches, dizziness, light sensitivity. after two years of misery, the glasses are really just a miracle. please remember that your eyes can cause problems that might not seem vision related at all.

May 25th, 2016 4:28pm

my nephew had a two wheeler accident on 9th of Feb 2015. Soon after he got head injury and he got operated in few hours. Then we shifted him to Apollo Hospital, Bannerghatta Road followed by a rehab treatment by Sakra World Hospital Bangalore. Now he is recovered 80% and preparing for his Diploma 6th semester exam and getting a headache and head spin often. Doctor mentioned that no need to be panic, its common for a head injured patient. But when he get headache he even feels that he faints for few seconds. We are really scared about this. Kindly suggest some remedy's to cure this head ache if any. It would be great. by Vinoda B

Mar 19th, 2016 1:30am

mom from car accident feb 2013. mine was not a car accident but i understand the feeling. i have the same symptoms constant 24/7 every day since i have lost the ability to look after myself properly and my two children i lost my life. but still keep going cause i hear my two girls on the phone every day and it keeps me going for now!

Jan 18th, 2016 7:49pm

Hi all, I was in a car accident when I was 16. I now have had the most excruciating headaches of many varying types daily for almost seven years now. I pray that God will heal and help us all find real and lasting relief so that we can enjoy life again for the rest if our days!!! You are all so courageous and I appreciate the strength it took to post. I know if seems like it's never going to end, but I believe it will. God Bless you all :-) Thanks and love, Abby

Dec 6th, 2015 11:34pm

I have been the same for 30 years!! Don't even know how I raised my kids!!

Nov 27th, 2015 7:30am

I was in a car accident Feb 2013 and suffered a level 4-5 concussion and severe whiplash. Everyday since I have been in constant pain in my head neck and shoulders. I also get migraines every 2-3 weeks. Severe pain, nausia, vertigo, numbness, freezing, loss of motor skills and loss of coherence. I take several meds and receive Botox injections with little improvement. My MRI looks fine so my settlement for the accident will be small and may not cover the cost if the Botox in the years to come. I as m hopeless and am beginning to feel like giving up. I can understand why some with chronic pain commit suicide. I am almost three years in with no light at the end of the tunnel. This has taken everything from me, I can't even be the mother I want to be. I want to play with my son. I beg GOD to please help me!

Nov 17th, 2015 8:31pm

I suffered from a 4th blow to my head ( all not at fault car accidents) and I suffer from constant migraines, double-vision, etc.  It seems that dying in the accident would have been much easier than living in constant pain.  No one has been able to help me.  To make things worse, my physician got me involuntarily dependent to Clonazepam.  My life is so bleak that I wouldn't wish the pain  it on my worst enemy.. All I can do is pray now, that is all that helps.

Nov 15th, 2015 11:36pm

I had brain surgery 4 years ago I have headaches now and the insicion is swollen somtimes it get red I cant even put a barbie pin in my hair I feel like im having electric shock the new nerologist gAve me mri he said he saw unidentified object in head I call surgeon to go back and see what that was they dont want to give me appointment dr peter shedden my name is avagene harris im so depress mad sad disstress and in pain I just had knee surgery because before surgery drs had me on wrong med I could not walk and fell torn ligament im really punishing I hAVE KIDS GOD PLEASE TAKE ME OUT OF THIS MISERY

Nov 11th, 2015 11:04pm

god its so refreshing to even know people experience the same thing i do i was 10 in 2001 just about a week before my birthday and found i had a postier fossa brain tumor ever since its been gone headache one long monotonous headache always there just different intensity honestly im a bitter person for it now never getting the help i needed and no help in sight .stay strong everyone

Oct 12th, 2015 6:16am

Hello iam Alex back in 2013 I was admired to hospital with gunshot wound to my right side of my head I was in coma for about 3weeks my brain is still damaged my headaches are very painful sometimes I wish I would never make it I still suffer paralysis my left side is paralyzed I can't drive or walk my dog in the park I love so much and it's very feast raiding the person who called himself my best friend shot me and then tried to run but my family is very generous that's why there were no charges against him and he still walking there somewhere before this happened my family and I treated him like he was part of family my brother gave him a high paying job he used everything in our house he are he slept without even saying thank you but now iam paralyzed it will be 2years this December and I know his time will come I will hear about it I was shot with 45 cal hollow point and still suffering pain

Sep 19th, 2015 5:34pm

I am 3 months after a subarachnoid haemorrhage headaches are horrible stiff neck and light headness. doctor told me they would go away in about 3 weeks. When to my own doctor this week and told him about my headache and he said they should be gone by now. Just reading the one with headache after 13 years after a bleed I am fit to cry.

Sep 5th, 2015 6:58am

I get different types of headaches, but then there is always the one non stop headache, always there day and night and is sad to say I just learned to live with it and the pain I get in my eyes. I preffer to be in my house, in the dark, closed curtains because the sun light for me is too much worssens the pain causing me to get dizzy and nauseous and cry. is been 1year and 4 months since my tbi and sometimes I wish I would of never woken up from comma and I just turned 25.

Aug 20th, 2015 6:51pm

I had a concussion from car accident... And it happens in 2013 22 Nov - and when the headaches comes... I know it... My head spin, nausea and here we go... stay for 4-5. Days... i am so tired of this... Can't wait it stopped, plus I have ptsd from accident... Pain in the back... Burning sensation behind my head!... Frustrating!

Aug 16th, 2015 7:57pm

My headaches came from a simple fall on the back of my head, just simply fell in the parking lot on my way into work and it's ruining my life. 18 days in the psych ward, Percocet's four times a day. mornings that are unbelievable I know I'm telling you people something you already know. But I'm almost at three years with the same headache. Lucky for me I have a good family doctor that understands and a good psychiatrist early on that understood. The terrible thing is sometimes I just sit and wait for the day to be over. i'm 63 retirement was supposed to be different God bless all of you

Jul 24th, 2015 4:41pm


May 27th, 2015 8:32am

Almost 2 years now for me with permanent headache that changes constantly. Pressure and pain constant feeling of movement in the frontal lobes. When it becomes unbearable it feels like someone is hitting me on the top of the head with a bat. I take one day at a time, try to stay positive. My brain injury was caused from High voltage electric shock. I avoid busy noisy places and try my best to not get too overloaded , live a quiet life.

Apr 16th, 2015 9:23pm

After my brain injury I used to get headaches caused by mental fatigue

Apr 16th, 2015 12:07pm

I had a brain injury in 1989 I was hit with an ax during a robbery. They broke my Temporal bone busted my 7th and 8th crainial nerves jacked up my inner ear Today 25 1/2 years later I still have headaches which have gotten worse I have PTSD, hearing loss, ringing of the ear, Vertigo, Seizure Disorder, facial paralysis. Believe it or not in 1989 when at the Hospital a Priest threw holy water on me and I awoke, I still have dreams of someone trying to kill me today

Feb 17th, 2015 1:32am

I am three years past a subarachnoid hemorrhage and I've had a headache ever since. Not headacheS, a single ongoing, never stops, &3*%$! headache. It's a horrible way to live. I was told, upon leaving the hospital, to go right back to work and I'd be fine within a few weeks. Blessedly I can run and get a little relief as a runner, and some days are easier than others. But other days are so hard I can't get out of bed. When I read someone say 13 years, tears come to my eyes.

Jan 5th, 2015 4:48pm

Three years ago I had an Acoustic Neuroma removed on my right side.  The doctor got all of the tumor but left me with 100% hearing loss on my right side.  Since waking up from the surgery, I have had constant headpain.....not headache...but head pain.  I have been to numerous doctors, specialists, Neurologists, and have tried every medicine under the sun.  I get comfort in perocoset about every 2 - 3 hours daily.  Most nights not needed, but an occasional night, but few and far between.  I have come to the conclusion that when they operated, they damaged the nerves in my head and cannot be detected.  I'm at my wits end.  I've never thought of this as a tbi, but, i should change my way of thinking as I believe it is.

Feb 20th, 2014 3:43pm

I have got a tbi 15 yrs ago and  I use to have headaches everyday of my life. I gotta new doctor  4 yrs ago he did a lot of research and put me on topamax and it was the answer. I

Jan 12th, 2014 5:56pm

Approx 13 yrs ago I had a lg bleed in my brain and am lucky to be alive. I too appear physically fine. The defects are all hidden and therefore life as difficult as my brain makes it, is made more difficult. The hardest symptom is that for 13 years not one day has passed that I have not had a headache. The only difference is the level. Triggers can be stress, expectations of others, the weather or I just wake up in severe pain. It is a horrendous way to live and only one person, my doctor, ever understood. Unfortunately he suddenly passed also of heart failure. 3 children a husband and elderly mother. They know but after 13 years, still no clue of all symptoms because I look good. Everyday is so hard. I even have neighbors taking photos of me if I go outside I guess trying to show I'm fine and one was a trained special ed teacher. scary.

Oct 30th, 2013 8:27am

Ive had multiple TBI's medical marijuana is the best pain management treatment i have experienced as far as side effects go

Oct 6th, 2013 8:54pm

My headaches were non stop for about 14 months after TBI. I medicated every day..but first tried to go without it until headache was unbearable. Every day it got longer and longer before I needed pain meds. Today..4 years later, I still take nightime pain meds or I wake with a headache. I too gained a lot of weight and have still many balance issues. I use Visalus protein shakes for good nutrition and weight management. I am now researching how to regain, or retrain my balance so that I will stop falling.

Aug 27th, 2013 8:40pm

I have had a persistent headache following a closed head injury for the past six weeks. The headaches are often accompanied by nausea, left ear earache, and pressure and pain on the left side of my neck. I have been seeing a pain specialist who has administered two injections at the base of my skull only to have them offer very little relief. He finally put me in the hospital for five days with a dilaudid pain pump to ease the pain and for those few days I felt a tremendous amount of relief. After discharge from the hospital the headaches came back in full force and I am miserable. Any suggestions about what course of action I should take next to get rid of these blasted headaches would be welcomed. Thank you

Jun 10th, 2013 10:47pm

I treat brain injury patients in my role as a pain management specialist in a prominent rehab hospital in Atlanta. I see a lot of post-traumatic headache and have found sphenopalatine ganglion block to be an extremely helpful treatment which is generally well tolerated and very low side effect profile.

May 19th, 2013 10:16am

You should also mention Chiropractic and Physical Therapy as treatment options. These are some of the most helpful treatments for cervicogenic headache. If the head/brain has received a trauma it is highly likely that the neck sustained a trauma as well. The neck can become unstable/weak and proper restoration of joint motion and muscle reactivation will speed the neck recovery. Massage or stretching alone will usually only help to reset a tight muscle but not necessarily facilitate the deep flexors for stability (longus colli, longus capitis). This can lead to a chronic condition where the compensatory muscles continue to become overworked and necessitate regular treatment. Additionally, the dysfunction/compensation can work it's way into the thoracic spine as well leading to altered neck function persisting the cervicogenic headache. Make sure a complete exam is done by your healthcare provider and don't consider the overlook evaluating the entire system. Doug Maxeiner, DC

May 19th, 2013 7:51am

my poor husband is 10 mts after his Brain Trauma and not one day goes by without a servere headache.The headach increases if he tries to do any form of exercise and also he gets internal tremors and tinnitus changes to a very high pitch. It has totally ruined our lives. He sits for most of the day and as a result has gained over 3 stone in weight. His MRI was normal. We are going crazy can anyone help. Our Neurologist has changed his meds again and it isn't easy

May 15th, 2013 3:03am

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