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Vision Issues After Brain Injury: BrainLine Talks with Dr. Gregory Goodrich

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Victoria Tilney McDonough, BrainLine

Vision Issues After Brain Injury: BrainLine Talks with Dr. Gregory Goodrich
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BrainLine sat down with Dr. Gregory Goodrich to talk about the problems with vision that can arise after a traumatic brain injury. Dr. Goodrich is the supervisory research psychologist assigned to the VA Western Blind Rehabilitation Center in Palo Alto, California. He also serves as the program coordinator for the Optometric Research Fellowship Program at the VA hospital in Palo Alto.

 

BrainLine: How common is it to have vision problems after traumatic brain injury (TBI)?

Dr. Goodrich: For TBI in general, the literature says 20-40 percent of people with brain injury experience related vision disorders; however, the exact prevalence is not known. 1, 2

In the military population — although we don’t have a definitive statistic — we have found in mild TBIs that troops exposed to one or more blasts can have trouble with their eyes coordinating with one another, what we call “oculomotor or binocular dysfunction.”

In moderate to severe TBI, about one third of the troops tested have some sort of visual impairment, which can include visual acuity and field loss, binocular dysfunction, and spatial perceptual deficits.

Complete visual examinations are now a required part of testing for brain injury in all four VA polytrauma centers, which will help with data collection since, until this mandate was passed, comprehensive visual examinations were not an integral part of interdisciplinary protocols for brain injury. The hope is that in the future this comprehensive test will be part of any evaluation of someone with a TBI whether civilian or military.

BrainLine: What are the tests for visual problems like currently?

Dr. Goodrich: To date, if a person has a traumatic brain injury, he is not given a full visual examination. What is administered most often is a basic test called the Confrontation Visual Field Test, or CVFT. Basically, it consists of a doctor standing at arm’s length away from the patient, wiggling his fingers in different areas of the person’s visual field, and saying, “Can you see this?” This is a good, quick-and-dirty test, but unfortunately, it often misses significant visual problems.

Comprehensive visual examinations include the types of examinations you would receive normally for annual ophthalmological and optometric examinations. They look at eye health, refractive errors, visual fields, contrast sensitivity, and so on. What is unique about these comprehensive examinations is that they include examinations for occult injury, binocular function, and other specialized testing which goes beyond what is normally provided. In short, they are designed to detect vision disorders which are not commonly seen by clinicians and which require specialized testing to uncover.

Again, we hope that soon a complete visual examination will be a requirement of an interdisciplinary evaluation of someone with a TBI — civilian or military.

BrainLine: What are the most common kinds of visual problems?

Dr. Goodrich: The two big categories are visual acuity loss and visual field loss.

Let’s start with visual acuity loss. If a person wears prescription glasses and takes them off, he will have a loss of acuity — or clarity. With brain injury, people can have a relatively small visual acuity loss or significant loss.

Visual acuity loss results from damage to the eye, the nerve fibers that carry signals from the retina in the eye to the brain, or to the visual cortex. This loss can sometimes be effectively treated with glasses, magnifiers, or electronic reading aids such as closed-circuit televisions. How much the loss impacts an individual’s life depends on the degree of the loss. Needing a small amount of magnification is in some ways similar to those of us who need bifocals. A need for more optical magnification than that can require different devices and training.

Visual field loss is a bit more complicated. Think of your visual field as a pie. Visual field loss is categorized by which part of the pie is affected.

  • If you have hemianopsia, half of your pie — or visual field, either vertically or horizontally — is gone; you cannot see it.
  • If you have quadranopsia, a quarter of your visual field is lost.
  • If you have homonymous hemianopsia, the same quarter or half is lost in both eyes.
  • If you have bitemporal hemianopsia, you are missing the outer half (or inner half) of both the right and left visual field.

Hemianopsia and quadranopsia are the most common types of visual field losses; but going back to the pie analogy, other types of field losses include loss around the edges of the pie or loss from the middle going outward. And, of course, there can be differing combinations depending upon the individual injury.

Visual field loss is caused by damage to the nerve fibers that carry the visual signal from the eyes to the visual cortex and/or connect operations between different parts of the brain.

BrainLine: Are these vision problems temporary or permanent?

Dr. Goodrich: Just like people, all brain injuries are unique, and that includes the process of recovery; so it is difficult to generalize. After a brain injury, once the person is medically stable, we will start visual rehabilitation. If the visual problems resolve, great; if not, we have a head start by starting that early. Vision is integrated into other problems that can occur post-TBI like muscular imbalance and vestibular problems (dizziness, imbalance, vertigo, etc.)

BrainLine: Can people with brain injury suffer from both kinds of vision loss?

Dr. Goodrich: Yes, people with TBI can suffer from both visual field loss and visual acuity loss. After all, 40-50 percent of the brain is involved in vision; so if a person’s brain is damaged in a specific location or several locations, there is a high probability that his vision will be affected in some way.

BrainLine: If someone has hemianopsia, for example, and she can’t see the left side of her world, can she learn how to compensate for that, or “see” it?

Dr. Goodrich: Broadly speaking, there are two kinds of visual field losses — those with neglect and those without neglect, and this is a huge oversimplification but perhaps useful to begin understanding field loss.

Let’s take your example of the woman who has hemianopsia, and she can’t see the left side of her world. If she has hemianopsia with neglect, she doesn’t even know that the left side of her world exists. It’s just not there. She has no awareness of its existence. She might look in the mirror and only comb the right side of her hair, or apply mascara only to the right eye. She doesn’t know she is ignoring her left side because she has no awareness that it exists. Because of her complete lack of awareness, it would be challenging, but possible, to teach a person like this compensatory strategies.

If she has hemianopsia without neglect — if she has retained an awareness of the lost side of her vision — she can learn compensatory strategies to “search into” that side of her world. Such strategies include scanning, moving the head from side to side, and re-teaching her eyes to move and look into the missing areas.

BrainLine: What other techniques and compensatory strategies do you use?

Dr. Goodrich: In rehab, there are various techniques we can use to help people with visual problems after TBI. For someone with visual acuity loss, we teach them the importance of better lighting, the use of magnification, and strategies or assistive technologies to make reading or using the computer easier. Prescription glasses or contacts may also help.

For people with visual field loss, we give them specific strategies to scan their environment, based on where their hemianopsia is located.

For example, if a man has lost the bottom half of his visual field, he is at greater risk of falling off a curb, tripping over a threshold, or falling over a skateboard left in the driveway. So we will teach more efficient scanning processes — ways for him to scan the ground, to move his eyes and head down and around to prevent falling and tripping.

For some people — and this is ideal, of course — problems like hemianopsia after TBI resolve themselves. For others, it doesn’t, and learning scanning processes and other strategies can take a short time or weeks before a person reaches his maximum level of independence.

The length of time for learning compensatory strategies depends on a person’s cognitive level post-injury. For someone with TBI who has more cognitive impairment, has perceptual deficiencies, and has less awareness, the rehab will be harder. This person may be able to see the skateboard in the driveway, but he may not be able to connect seeing it to the fact that he needs to walk around it.

BrainLine: What professionals help a person learn these strategies and compensations?

Dr. Goodrich: You might think I’d answer with just ophthalmologists and neurologists, but I want to emphasize the importance of interdisciplinary rehabilitation for people with brain injury. An interdisciplinary team can include nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, physical medicine and rehab physicians, neurologists, neuropsychologists, audiologists, ophthalmologists, and so on. And each one of these professionals may play a part in rehabilitating vision.

Let me give you an example of how an interdisciplinary team worked with one of our patients. Among other issues resulting from his brain injury, the patient had a left hemianopsia with neglect; he was unaware that the left side of his world existed. He was mostly confined to bed. His nurses, who spent the most consistent time with him, noticed that the way his bed was positioned precluded him from being able to see who was coming into his room, which made him more agitated and less confident. So they suggested to the team that they move his bed so that the door was by his right side, enabling him to greet staff or visitors. As he got stronger and more confident, the nurses, in continued collaboration with the interdisciplinary team, then did the opposite. They moved his bed so that the door was by his left field of vision, the half that was lost. By doing this, he had to work on scanning — moving his head and eyes beyond his right visual field — and also learning to listen for audio cues.

Especially because each brain injury is unique, an interdisciplinary team is a matter of “more heads are better than one.”

BrainLine: When does a brain injury result in blindness?

Dr. Goodrich: Blindness can come from a penetrating injury like a gun shot or a non-penetrating injury like a blast in combat. It can also be a result of an injury to the back of the head — like from a fall — that destroys or damages an area that coordinates signals between the brain and the eyes. In this case, the eyes could be perfectly normal, but the function in the brain allowing the eyes and brain to communicate would be damaged and no longer work. Our experience with troops returning from the current wars suggests that total blindness is less common than other visual losses; perhaps occurring in 2-4 percent of all cases.

BrainLine: Are vision problems after blast injuries different from, say, vision problems after a car crash or sports injury?

Dr. Goodrich: So far we think that blast injuries and injuries from a car crash or a sports injury produce similar visual problems. However, we lack a good understanding of how exactly a blast causes brain injury. Blasts cause injury not just by the brain banging around in the head; but they also add torsional forces. (Picture a plastic ruler being twisted between both hands, each hand twisting it in the opposite direction. The ruler would be in a state of torsion.) The brain being twisted in this way may cause shearing, which is basically the stretching and tearing of the tiny nerve cells that comprise the brain and/or the blood vessels which provide nourishment to the nerves.

But all we can say now, based on the evidence we have, is that the visual consequences from blast and non-blast brain injuries appear very similar. Until we clearly understand how blast injury occurs, we should be cautious in interpreting our findings.

BrainLine: How do visual deficits influence quality of life?

Dr. Goodrich: Having visual deficits after a brain injury can definitely interfere with a person’s quality of life. Visual problems often go hand-in-hand with cognitive or physical problems and also with psychological problems like depression. If a person cannot see well, he may isolate himself because he doesn’t want to be out in the world bumping into people or losing his way. He may have a fear of crowds or may feel embarrassed that he can’t read the expressions on his friends’ faces. This social isolation can be devastating and can then lead to depression, anxiety, and substance abuse.

BrainLine: What research is being done to help people with TBI-related vision dysfunction?

Dr. Goodrich: There are some studies in the works, but frankly, it is very difficult to conduct large-scale studies of people with similar visual deficit symptoms after TBI. The expression, “If you’ve seen one TBI patient, you’ve seen one TBI patient,” is never more accurate than in this case. Visual dysfunctions after TBI are so diverse and variable that it is hard to conduct a conclusive study. And until the problems of TBI and TBI-related vision problems are more widely recognized, getting funding will continue to be challenging.

That said, I am involved in a delayed treatment trial at the VA. We are looking at three different rehab techniques to treat hemianopsia. Basically, we are looking to see which of these three treatments is more effective than doing nothing. The techniques include:

  • an established technique to teach scanning in which a person is taught to use an alternative area of the retina.
  • a device from NovaVision that may be able to take advantage of brain plasticity to increase the visual field it sees. This is done by stimuli administered in the intact field of vision and in the damaged field, basically, shrinking the border between the two to reduce the area of hemianopsia.
  • a device from NeuroTechnology (NVT) Systems  in Australia that uses a light board with rows of colored lights. The light board and NVT system uses a behavioral technique to use head motions to look into the lost visual area.

BrainLine: What advice would you give someone after a TBI who is experiencing visual problems?

Dr. Goodrich: I would say if following a brain injury the person has any visual symptoms at all — even a little blurriness or fuzziness, eyes that fatigue easily, difficulty reading, or frequent bumping into things on one side more than the other — he should get a comprehensive eye examination by an ophthalmologist or optometrist. A comprehensive test would include testing the visual field and acuity, contrast sensitivity, and binocular vision. Make sure to find out if the symptoms are related to the visual system or something else … that is, are the symptoms a result of the brain injury or is it a simple need for a new pair of glasses? Try to find an optometrist or ophthalmologist who has experience working with people with brain injury. And keep persisting until you get the help you need.

 

Footnotes
1 Gianutsos, R. (1991). Computerized screening: Visual field deficits after brain injury. Journal of Behavioral Optometry, 2(6), 143-150.
2 Kerkoff, G. (2000). Neurovisual rehabilitation: recent developments and future directions. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Pscyhiatry, 68, 691-706.

 

Gregory Goodrich, PhD
BrainLine sat down with Dr. Gregory Goodrich to talk about the problems with vision that can arise after a traumatic brain injury. Dr. Goodrich began his career with the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in 1974 and is currently supervisory research psychologist (Psychology Service) assigned to the Western Blind Rehabilitation Center in Palo Alto, California. He also serves as the program coordinator for the Optometric Research Fellowship Program at the VA hospital in Palo Alto. His primary areas of research are low-vision reading and mobility. Most recently, his research has focused on the treatment of polytrauma veterans with visual loss returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

The opinions expressed are those of Dr. Goodrich and not those of the Department of Veterans Affairs.

BrainLine


Gregory L. Goodrich, PhD Gregory L. Goodrich, PhD, Dr. Goodrich received his PhD in Experimental Psychology in 1974 from Washington State University. His career with the US Department of Veterans Affairs began in 1974 and he is currently supervisory research psychologist (Psychology Service) assigned to the Western Blind Rehabilitation Center.


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Comments [10]

Do you consider encephalitis (which is inflammation of the brain) a brain injury?

Jun 14th, 2014 6:32pm

Thank you so much Dr. Goodrich, I have been partially blind for 6 years, I had a brain injury 6 years ago and it paralysed my on my right side. I have been lucky enough to get back to using my right side and no longer need a wheelchair but my eyesight and hearing has stayed as bad as it was before. It's great to read information about the injury and makes me realise that I'm not alone...there are so many others who are going through the same thing...People like yourself are such a help

Sep 23rd, 2013 6:31pm

Thank you to Dr. Goodrich for addressing these issues. We also find that many people who have suffered mild to moderate brain injury also have what is commonly known as the 'supermarket syndome'. They cannot tolerate crowds, find that pushing a grocery cart up and down crowded store aisles unbearable, cannot have their children's friends playing busy and loud games at home. have light sensitivity, and many other problems with function that make life difficult and result in family issues, arguments, etc. Because there are often no scars or broken bones - these individuals look perfectly normal, yet cannot function in their environments and families as they did before the TBI. Ocular motor and accommodative work is helpful but has to be taken very slowly, should be done in sitting in an arm chair for protection from dizziness to begin, AND remember to always have a watepaper basket at hand for nausea and perhaps vomiting. It is slow progress but well worth the effort on the part of the Optometrist and Vision therapist and the patient.

Feb 16th, 2013 5:11pm

Dr. Goodrich, when i read all the articales ABOUT TBI it refer directly to me. I was injured in an jeep accident in the USArmy in September 1959. i was unconstius when found and rushed to rhe nearest hospital. the next day I started losing my vision and having terrible headaches. I was rushed to Landsthul Hospital Germany. i stayed there for the next 113 days, where i suffered from several periods of blindness, double vision, changing vision and gait problems. None of these symptoms ever went away, there was only periods of less severed. all the Army doctors said that i should be back to normal soon, the brain will heal itself. well my brain never heald itself. Whenever my symptoms was really bad i seeked help and none of the Ophthalmologist knew what to do for me, they finally said go back to the VA hospital.i really didn't want to go back to the VA; because in 1962 the VA hospital only wanted me to be seen by a psychiratist, i told them i was not crazy my problems are real. these last few yeare i seen many well known Neuro-ophthlamologist and neurologist. they have all said that my conditions, symptoms are very real and very rare; however they are secondary to my brain injury. They said i need to be treated that first. I was told to go to an Brain Concussion specialist group.ARE THEY RIGHT? HOW DO I GO ABOUT MAKING ARRANGEMENTS TO THESE SPECIAL GROUP? SOMETIMES MY CONDITION IS ALMOST AS BAD WHEN I FIRST HAD MY ACCIDENT. I NEED HELP WOULD YOU RECOMEND ANY SPECIAL GRoup or any solution to solve my problem. respectfully CHARLES

Dec 28th, 2012 3:56pm

I didn't read this word by word as reading on the computer is hard for me. But I did not pick up on a mention of midline shift. I have multiple visual affects from my brain injury, field loss, double vision and midline shife the predominant ones. Many, many, many survivors of brain injury have some degree of midline shift and that creates many of the problems that uninformed practitioners apply to vestibular problems even if there is little to no dizziness. If you walk a crooked line, always heading to one side or the other without realizing it, get checked for midline shift. Behavioral optometrists are trained in this. The doctors at Mass. Eye and Ear did not find it; my optometrist did.

Sep 17th, 2012 12:03pm

Is there a reason monocular diplopia is not mentioned anywhere (double vision in a single eye--irrespective of binocular focus or visual neglect issues)? That is my problem since TBI, as well as issues (perhaps related) with high contrast "vibration" especially with type (black on white page) or stripes.

Jul 27th, 2011 6:46pm

It should be noted that in many TBI patients with symptomatic epilepsy, the treatment is anterior temporal lobectomy. As the optic nerve travels through the temporal lobe (Myer's loop) it is often damaged by the surgery, resulting in permanent quadrantopsia.

Apr 1st, 2010 11:36am

Thank you for highlighting this issue. Thanks to hearing an expert in the field at a Brain Injury Assoc. caregivers conference, I was able to obtain vision therapy from a qualified optometrist for my husband who has global eschemia from hypoxia. The results so far are subtle but encouraging.

Mar 25th, 2010 9:54am

Thank you for sharing this article. I was wondering why there was not more discussion on the cognitive/perceptual deficits that are related to TBI?

Mar 5th, 2010 8:59am

Bravo for this article on vision issues after TBI. I have struggled with this since sustaining mTBI in 1994 (and 1998). But I have found that my best compensatory strategy has been my sense that part of the difficulty I encounter in the community is TBI related and the other part is the lack of knowledge on the part of the general public of the role played by environmental issues. I thought I could no longer read, until I learned that I could read pages that were "ragged right" (not fully justified). I advocated with BI organizations to make their print material more TBI-friendly. And I ask the state office of legislative services to print proposed legislation for me in a ragged right fashion. Although I can find science on what TBI does to vision, and what vision impairments contribute to reading difficulties, I cannot find the authoritative statement that puts them together (if I could, I could effect more change). Accommodating print colors, styles, line widths (and other practices of good design for print material) goes a long way to reduce the "I can'ts" that come with vision problems (aagh - filling out forms). Please do not ignore advocacy and civil rights issues when it comes to helping people learn to accommodate the impairments that come with vision disturbances following TBI! I wish that some group would come up with guidelines for print (and web) material to make the most readable materials for people with TBI vision impairments (and just for folks who are plain getting older). The CDC has been the BEST in this area; but unfortunately some organizations serving TBI populations need to develop awareness and make changes! I am glad vision issues have been brought out of the darkness. In vision, as well as other TBI-affected impairments to resuming life as best we can, self-advocacy and a good healthy sense of the American with Disabilities Act goes a VERY LONG WAY. And for those folks who participate in surveys about disabilities: speak up when a survey asks about vision impairments that are solely eye-ball related. Explain vision issues you experience so that future survey questions can be broadened (Surveys usually imply problems are with dimness; my problem is with glare!) Education and advocacy may not provide a "cure," but getting accommodations sure goes a long way in helping us see the light!

Mar 4th, 2010 8:03pm


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