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A surprising thing happened when researchers began exploring whether early-life stress compounds the effects of a childhood head injury on health and behavior later in life: In an animal study, stress changed the activation level of many more genes in the brain than were changed by a bump to the head.
Experiencing three or more concussions is linked with worsened brain function in later life, according to major new research. The study – the largest of its kind - also found having just one moderate-to-severe concussion, or traumatic brain injury (TBI), can have a long-term impact on brain function, including memory.
Ideally, trigger warnings allow individuals who have experienced trauma to be forewarned about material that may elicit unwanted memories of past traumatic events. However, some have hypothesized that trigger warnings have more costs than benefits, even for those with relevant traumas.
A new study published in Neurology dispels the notion that "mild" concussions have no lasting impact on mental skills like thinking, remembering, and learning. Poor cognitive outcomes are common 1 year after injury.
A study comparing depression rates in men and women one year after moderate or severe TBI shows no significant gender differences in depression symptom levels. But researchers did find different patterns of other symptoms.