Neurostorm of the Century, Part 1 of 3: Medical Terminology
The word “neurostorming” was one of many new medical terms we learned while Josh was in his coma.
Living with Concussion the Natural Way
Rachel Derrington is not the same person she was before her brain swelled up and changed her attitude, priorities and sense of self. She is better. Rachel shares the four things that turned her from an survivor to a thriver.
Letter From the Other Side — Return from a Traumatic Brain Injury
The Pulitzer Prize-winning music critic Tim Page writes about rebuilding his life after a traumatic brain injury.
I Can Fix You
It took a few minutes to go over my medical history as we sat in his exam room. He took a few notes, listened to our story, took a few more notes, and asked a question or two. He then looked us square in the eyes and uttered four words. “I can fix you.”
Are Kids Getting More Concussions Than We Realize?
A new study estimates that the number of concussions among those 18 years old and younger is higher than the previously reported.
Finding New Ways To Treat Memory Problems
Vivid and unusual images can help a person with TBI remember new information.
My Insurance-Driven Recovery
It’s a tough nut to swallow when you look back and realize with stunning clarity that the very quality of day-to-day life after a TBI is largely determined by how well insured you are.
Teen athletes sandbag concussion tests to stay in the game
What happens when the drive to play outweighs the potential risk of injury? Some high school athletes are finding ways around the precautions coaching and medical staff take to ensure their safety.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) in Amateur Athletes
A new study suggests that vulnerability to CTE is not limited to professional athletes.
Can the Drugs Namenda and Aricept Help After Brain Injury?
Learn about the risks and benefits of these drugs for symptoms of brain injury.
What Is the Ideal Timeline to Do MRIs, fMRIs, DTIs, and Fiber Tracking to Diagnose TBI?
More than imaging, diagnosis of TBI is still based on the initial symptoms at the time of the injury.
The Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Military-Related Post-Concussive Symptoms
Research on HBO2 therapy concluded that it does not help manage symptoms from mild traumatic brain injury.
Testing Brain Injury-Related Vision Issues with People Who Can’t Communicate
How do you test the vision of someone with TBI who cannot communicate — talk or respond otherwise to questions?
Can Ritalin Help Mitigate Brain Injury Symptoms?
Learn about the risks and benefits of taking Ritalin after a brain injury.
Expectations Versus Recommendations After a Brain Injury
People with TBI often had higher expectations for work and social life than their post-acute program staff recommended, a discrepancy partially attributed to TBI-related cognitive disorders.
Sharing the Pain or Over-Sharing?
While the fields of medicine and psychology have argued for strict boundaries between patients and their doctors, other professional bodies have begun to recognize the value of sharing their own narrative.
Future Treatments for Brain Injury, Not Just Brain Injury Symptoms
Dr. Robert Cantu talks about various therapies like hyperbaric oxygen chambers and omega-3 fatty acids that may prove to be effective wasy to treat brain injury, not just its symptoms.
HBOT: A Way to Heal the Injured Brain?
Dr. Bruce Gottlieb likens hyperbaric oxygen therapy to a catalyst, "like Miracle-Gro for your lawn. The soil has to be good for it to work.”
Ohio State University TBI Identification Method
This presentation provides health care and social service professionals with an interview guide designed to elicit a patient's history of traumatic brain injury.
Early Research on the Use of Neuroimaging for Tailoring TBI Rehabilitation
A specific analytical technique used during MRI may help people choose among possible cognitive rehab interventions.
What Medical Care Should a TBI Patient Receive?
How medical personnel try to stabilize the patient and assess the level of consciousness.
What Immediate Post-Injury Complications Can Occur From a TBI?
There are distinct medical complications that may arise as a result of the injury to the brain.
What Are the Causes of and Risk Factors for TBI?
Causes of TBI can range from falls to motor vehicle accidents. Learn more.
Brain Injury as a Chronic Disease: An Interview with Brent Masel, MD
Physicians spend a lot of time in school learning about obscure diseases and yet we’re not taught about a medical condition like TBI that every single medical specialist will encounter over and over. Chronic brain injury MUST be a part of every health care student’s curriculum.
The Need for an Objective TBI Test
Neuroscientist Dr. Ronald Hayes talks about how a blood biomarker would be a powerful adjunct to imaging and in-person evaluations when testing someone for a brain injury.
Extending Use of Biomarkers to Pediatric Population with TBI
Researchers and clinicians hope to make using biomarkers to diagnose TBI in infants or even in pre-natal cord blood a reality.
What the Future Might Hold for Treating Brain Injury
Neuroscientist Dr. Ronald Hayes talks about how, in the future, doctors will be able to map a person's genome, which could help how treatments are developed for brain injury.
More Science and Insight into Biomarkers for TBI
The more developed biomarkers become through research, the more clinicians will understand the biochemical changes in the brain from injury and how to treat the effects.
What Exactly Is a Biomarker?
A biomarker is any measurement that provides information on a patient's specific organ or organ system. A blood biomarker test like that used to test heart attack is greatly needed for TBI.
The Future of Diagnosing Traumatic Brain Injury
No one can definitively predict the future, but neuroscientist Dr. Ronald Hayes offers his thoughts on how developing research will help diagnosing and treating brain injury more effectively.
The Evolution of a Complex Brain
Dr. Van Wedeen explains that evolution of the brain must occur with small changes — from a small change in the genome to a small change in the structure to a small change, ultimately, in function.
Continuous Connectivity Helps with the Brain's Neuroplasticity
Dr. Van Wedeen explains that unlike a telephone switchboard where each wire is unique with no relation to the wires around it, wires in the brain have similar functions to their neighboring areas.
Understanding the Brain's Connectivity on Cellular and Mechanistic Levels
In 1993, some researchers decried: "It is intolerable that we do not have a knowledge of the connectivity of the human brain." Do we know more now?
Are the Brain's Axonal Corners Particularly Vulnerable to Breakage?
Like the leg of a table breaking off where the leg meets the table top, cerebral fibers in the brain have sharp branches and turns, which might make them particularly vulnerable to inertial trauma.
What Exactly Is Diffusion Spectral Imaging?
Neuroscientist Van Wedeen talks about how in diffusion spectral imaging water is used as a tracer to figure out the directions and crossings that fibers in the brain take.
How Diffusion Spectral Imaging Shows the Brain's Architecture
Dr. Van Wedeen explains how DSI shows the fiber architecture of the brain and how all the 3-D axes fit together as a whole to form a "highly deformed grid."
What Brain Research Is Revealing Through Neuroimaging
Neuroscientist Van Wedeen talks about how the brain is more than a random network of connections in and within the various areas of the brain.
Decoding Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy
Dr. Lee Goldstein explains what exactly this bonafide brain disease is as well as the rogue protein, tau, and how trauma is associated.
The Bobblehead Effect of Repetitive Brain Trauma
Dr. Lee Goldstein explains how the axons, capillaries, and blood vessels in the brain are sheared when a "bobblehead" head on a rigid neck accelerates back and forth.
How Are Football Brain Injuries and Blast Injuries the Same?
Researchers like Dr. Lee Goldstein are studying the effects of repetitive brain injury whether sustained over a season on the football field or in milliseconds from one combat blast.
The Pathology of CTE Versus That of Other Neurodegenerative Diseases
So far, research shows that chronic traumatic encephalopathy does not occur in people who have not sustained repetitive hits to the head either in sports or in combat.
The Science and Art of Neuropathology
Neuropathology is like looking at the last frame of a movie. You can deduce a lot from that frame but what you can't deduce is the arc of the story that culminated in that final frame.
Methamphetamine Can Be Neuroprotective After a Brain Injury
"The difference between poison and a cure is the dose," so explains Dr. David Poulsen about methamphetamine as a treatment for TBI.
How Methamphetamine Can Help Improve Function After Brain Injury
Researchers are testing methamphatemine to study its effect on mobility and cognitive function after a moderate to severe brain injury.
Why the Therapeutic Window Is So Important When Treating TBI
It can take hours from the time someone sustains a moderate to severe TBI for doctors to diagnose, test, and attain consent to use an experimental drug like methamphetamine.
The Use of Low-Dose, Non-Toxic, Methamphetamine for Treating Brain Injury
Dr. David Poulsen talks about the use of low-dose, non-toxic methamphetamine for treating people with moderate to severe TBI within 12 hours of injury.
The Dangers of Creating "Vulnerable Child Syndrome"
Parents need to balance their awareness of a child's mild TBI with letting that worry get in the way of the child's normal development.
The Specifics of Abusive Head Trauma
Abusive head trauma includes Shaken Baby Syndrome but also includes other injuries inflicted by an adult on a child.
CT Scans Versus MRIs for Imaging a Child's Brain
Both CTs and MRIs come with risks — from sedative drugs to levels of radiation. Depending on the severity of brain injury, parents and doctors should always consider the risk-benefit ratio.
More Research and Attention Needed for Pediatric Brain Injury
Pediatrician Rachel Berger talks about how pediatric brain injury is behind that of adult brain injury in research and process.
How to Treat Children with TBI
Unlike adults, children with a brain injury may not manifest any issues until they fail to reach a new developmental stage. Earlier intervention is always advisable, but diagnosis can be tricky.
Making Connections Between a TBI and Later Developmental Issues
Pediatrician Rachel Berger talks about the importance of being aware of a child's early concussion in case later he or she has trouble reading or is acting out ... the two may be connected.
High Hopes for Blood Biomarkers to Diagnose Brain Injury in Young Children
Pediatrician Rachel Berger talks about her research on blood biomarkers that could be used in the emergency setting to test for brain injury in babies and young children.
Using Solution-Focused Questions in Therapy After a TBI
Therapist Taryn Stejskal talks about the Solution-Focused Therapy Model that uses questions like the Exception Question and the Miracle Question to help people engage in their own problem solving.
The Importance of Constituent-Specific TBI Support Groups
Joining a TBI support group with others dealing specifically with the same issues can make a world of difference.
Could CTE Be Diagnosed in People Before Death?
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be tested post-mortem, but George Visger, who suffers from hydrocephalus, has offered his brain for testing next time he needs brain surgery.
Improvements with Hyperbaric Treatment for TBI
Retired NFL Player George Visger says various treatments including hyperbaric treatment has helped greatly with his issues with short-term memory, sleep disturbance, and anger management.
Clinical Practice and Research on TBI Now and Going Forward
Dr. Ron Broughton of Brookhaven Hospital talks about measuring outcome, the importance of looking at the person as a whole and not as an injury, and erasing the stigma of TBI.
Studies to Help Treat People with TBI Helping People without TBI, Too
Researchers are finding that issues like depression that plague people with TBI are not that different from how they affect people without TBI.
What Is the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory?
Designed to measure post-acute outcome, the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory helps providers measure the progress of people with TBI and tailor appropriate treatment plans.
Dr. James Malec Talks About Cognitive Rehabilitation
Cognitive rehab for people with TBI includes any intervention that addresses cognitive problems — from using a smartphone to help with memory to developing particular visual-spatial skills.
The Balancing Act of Caring for a Loved One with TBI
Dr. James Malec suggests caregivers try to be alert to symptoms that may develop post-injury like sleep disturbance or depression, but to lean on the side of trying not to worry too much.
The "Whatever It Takes" Model for Brain Injury Recovery
Holistic rehab is the "whatever it takes" model. Balance issues may be treated by a PT and depression by a psychologist, but therapies overlap for the outcome of the whole person.
The Challenges of Measuring Outcome in Brain Injury
Dr. James Malec talks about the difficulties of measuring outcome in TBI since targeted outcomes can range from the patient opening his eyes to managing headaches to getting back to work.
The Back Story of the Brain Injury Progesterone Study
Dr. David Wright explains how Dr. Donald Stein first started studying progesterone as a way to prevent swelling in the brain after a brain injury.
Progesterone Case Study: Remarkable Recovery
The story of one young man gives researchers like Dr. David Wright great hope that progesterone can be an effective treatment to help people recover from moderate to severe TBI.
How and When Progesterone Is Administered After a Brain Injury
In the Phase III trial, humans are given natural progesterone — which comes from yams — within a four-hour window when it can coat the brain and offer neuro protection.
How Do You Get a Patient's Consent to Be in a Trial If He is Unconscious?
Dr. David Wright talks about the PROTECT III trial studying the use of progesterone for moderate to severe TBI and how you get patients' consent.
From Bench to Bedside: Getting Progesterone Ready for Full Availability
Once the efficacy study proves definitively that progesterone works as a treatment for moderate to severe TBI and is FDA-approved, progesterone would be a cheap and readily available drug.
The Pleiotropic Nature of Progesterone When Used to Treat TBI
The most damage from a TBI does not come from the injury itself but from the secondary consequences. Learn how progesterone can help because of its pleiotropic nature.
Progesterone Helps Stop "Indiscrimate Cleaning" of Cells After Brain Injury
When the brain is injured, the body's reparative system calls in the "clean-up cells." Unfortunately, they clean indiscriminately, which can cause more damage.
Bringing an Immersive Neuropsych Tool to the Sidelines and to Theater
Dr. David Wright talks about a heads-up display unit that, with active white noise reduction, takes the neurotesting room to the sidelines or to combat.
Raised Awareness of TBI Has Helped Boost Research Efforts
It's disheartening for physicians to have to tell families with a loved one with severe TBI that, to date, there is no definitive treatment besides waiting and offering support.
Gaps and Challenges in TBI Research and What Next 5-10 Years Could Bring
In the next 5-10 years, we could see revolutionary changes to the way brain injury is treated, diagnosed, managed, and understood as an overall disease process.
What Exactly Happens After a Concussion?
NFL Head, Neck, and Spine Committee Co-Chair Dr. Richard Ellenbogen talks about the lack of a definitive tool to diagnose brain injury, but what techniques we do have to keep athletes safe.
Decades Beyond the Three-Finger Test for Sports-Related Concussion
NFL Head, Neck, and Spine Committee Co-Chair Dr. Richard Ellenbogen talks about the NFL's more evolved sidelines test and the Madden Rule.
Measuring the Forces of Blows or Blasts to the Head
The NFL and the military are currenty testing how better to detect and understand concussions through various mechanisms like sensors in helmets, mouthpieces, and earpieces.
Is It True That You Should Keep Someone Awake Who Has Sustained a TBI?
Keeping someone awake after a mild TBI is no longer recommended, but keeping an eye on the person is.
Improving Tolerance for Exercise After a Brain Injury
Gradually and systematically increasing your activity levels may help you exercise with fewer TBI-related side effects.
Neurotechnology for Brain Injury Fact Sheet
An introduction to brain injury and neurotechnology including an overview of the many clinical applications.
Fighting the "TBI Wars": New Alternatives for TBI Survivors
In A Farewell to Arms, Hemingway wrote, “The world breaks us all, then after, some are strong at the broken places.”
Neuropsych Exam Versus Imaging for Brain Injuries
A full neuropsychological evaluation of a child with a mild brain injury can often tell more about the nature of the damage and its functional effects than imaging screens like CAT scans or MRIs.
The brain is incredibly complex — take an interactive journey to see how the brain works and what impact an injury can have.
Do I Have a Brain Injury? And What Can I Do About It?
What is unidentified traumatic brain injury? Learn how it can happen and what can be done about it from people with brain injury and experts in the field.
The Ups and Downs of Changing Medications After Brain Injury
Talk with your health provider about fatigue, medication, and side effects.
What Cognitive Rest Really Means
Cognitive rest after a brain injury for kids means a break from sports and intense school work. It also means no tweeting, texting, internet, cell phone ...
Alcohol Use After Traumatic Brain Injury
After brain injury, many people notice their brains are more sensitive to alcohol. Learn about the effects of drinking post-injury and what to do and not do.
Nourish Your Noggin: Nutrition and Your Brain
What you eat greatly influences your body's ability to function well — physically and emotionally. Eating right is even more important after a brain injury.
Nourish Your Noggin: What Foods to Avoid and Why
Foods are best eaten in their most alive, natural states. Learn more about what you put in your body and how it can affect you physically and emotionally.
What About Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy?
CRT may be like the proverbial elephant — it feels different to different people depending on their circumstances and perspective. But, it may be essential to quality of life for people with TBI.
More Reasons to Exercise After a Brain Injury
Improved mood, cardiovascular fitness, and increased self-esteem are some of the main reasons people with a brain injury should partake in regular exercise.
Acupuncture Helps Brain Injury-Related Sleep Issues
Medication and acupuncture both help with sleep issues after brain injury but acupuncture has fewer side effects.
TBI's Miracle Drug
An accidental discovery about 20 years ago has led to a cyclosporine pharmaceutical on the threshold of approval for brain injury.
Does Having a Brain Injury Mean I'll Get Dementia When I'm Older?
An association between TBI and dementia exists, but the definitive research is still out.
Cómo obtener ayuda y apoyo técnico después de una lesión cerebral militar
Lidiar con una lesión cerebral puede ser algo frustrante y aislante. Pero tú no estás solo.
BrainLineMilitary.org: Getting Help and Support After a Military Brain Injury
Struggling with a brain injury can be frustrating and isolating. But you are not alone.
COL Dallas Hack, MD: The Day Before 9.11
COL Hack arrived for his first assignment in theater in the Middle East the day before 9.11. His work multiplied, but his commitment to helping wounded soldiers remained his main interest.
Why Woodpeckers Don't Get Brain Injuries
Understanding the biomechanics of the neck from injury is crucial for diagnosing and treating TBI. Learn why getting hit from the side is more damaging than getting hit straight on.
Sorting Through Evidence While Researching Concussion
Learning more about concussion through research is like looking at a photograph -- some pixels will be more clear and defined than others.
Do Not Ignore Neck Injuries
Helmets do a lot to prevent brain injuries, but the dynamics of head and neck movement should be part of the prevention equation, too.
More Research Is Needed on the Dynamics of Neck Motion
You can't have a head without a neck ... more research is needed on how the neck moves and what impact those movements have on shearing within the brain during injury.
Understanding the Nuances of Shearing Injuries in the Brain
Shearing is the stretching and tearing of the tiny nerve cells that comprise the brain. Learn more about the research and neuroimgaging that shearing can cause when the brain is injured.
Learn How Predictive Timing Stems from Attention
Learn how predictive timing stems from attention and how that timing becomes out of synch and variable for people post-TBI.
First Standard Guidelines for Brain Injury Trauma Care
In 1995, the first evidence-based guidelines endorsed by the American Association of Neurological Surgeons were published. But implementing them for equal care for all proved to be more difficult.
Evidence-Based Medicine Leads to Better Outcomes
Trauma centers that comply with evidence-based medicine for TBI — or any medical condition, for that matter — should be certified and given incentives.
Eye Tracking Technology to Test TBI Symptoms
Eye tracking technology is dynamic and quick. One test takes 30 seconds and picks up hundreds of data points per second.
Start with Low-Hanging Fruit in TBI Treatment
Much good basic science research has and continues to get done, but mostly in silos. Standardizing what is known in clinical practice would be the smart way to optimize care for people with TBI.
Using Knowledge for Better TBI Patient Outcome
The standard medical guidelines published in 1995 have already significantly improved outcome, but more knowledge and change in doctors and the public is necessary to continue to improve outcome in people with TBI.
Attention Is a Person's Window on the World
People with TBI can usually process information, though it may happen slowly or may "be off." More research is needed.
Five Wheels on an Ambulance
Doing whatever possible to get better outcomes for people with brain injury is crucial whether through research, diagnosis, treatment or a combination of all of them.
Dr. Jamshid Ghajar: Multiple Definitions of Concussion
Concussions have been around since the beginning of time, but our knowledge and treatment of them are and need to be vastly different. It all starts with the need for one, sound definition.
Subspeciality Certification in Brain Injury Medicine
A new subspecialty has been created to address the growing need to monitor, assess, and advance new technologies for people with brain injury.
Emergency Room Considerations for People with Brain Injury
Getting to an ER is crucial after a TBI, especially for an injury that is on the more severe side. The quicker doctors can do a CAT scan of the brain, the quicker they can act on their diagnosis.
Diagnosing TBI in the ER
For mild TBIs, making a clear diagnosis can be difficult. There are CAT scans and physical and neuropsych evaluations. But in the future there may be simple, revealing blood tests.
Understanding Diffuse Axonal Injury
Diffuse axonal injury affects nerve fibers, which can lead to a disruption in nerve communication — affecting a person's physical and cognitive abilities.
Understanding Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
A car crash, for instance, can cause subarachnoid hemorrhage — bleeding in the area between the brain and the thin tissues that cover the brain.
Understanding Subdural Hematoma
Usually the result of a serious brain injury, a subdural hematoma is a collection of blood on the surface of the brain.
Playing sports has many benefits for kids, but there needs to be more awareness of the potentially life-changing effects of repeat concussion.
Tackling the Public Health Problem of Brain Injury
Dr. David Hovda talks about the problems of misdiagnosis and how efforts to increase awareness and prevention could help athletes and soldiers.
The Implications of Recent Research on the Brain
Find out more about the implications of recent data on traumatic brain injury.
Finding a Balance: Sports and Safety
Yes, some sports could be safer — and should be — but not participating in sports at all is like being a boat that never sets sail.
A Hero's Message Can Go a Long Way for TBI Awareness
Professional athletes could help educate the myriad kids who look up to them by being upfront about the dangers of brain injury.
The Need for "Brain Fuel" After a TBI
The brain is only 2% of a person's body mass, but it takes 20% of the body's energy. The brain's need for energy increases exponentially after a TBI.
Careful, Thoughtful Stem Cell "Revival" Needed in TBI Research
Researchers believe that the therapeutic value of stem cell therapy for brain injury is there, but much important work still needs to be done.
Stem Cell Transplant Versus Drug Therapy for Severe TBI
Researchers are weighing the risks versus the rewards of using stem cell transplants with people with severe traumatic brain injury.
A Guide to Neuropsychological Testing
Neuropsychological testing can help you and your doctors better understand your injury and plan for the most effective therapy.
Eight Key Questions to Ask About Clinical Trials
What to know and ask before joining a clinical trial.
Make Sure to Get Appropriate Help and Treatment After a TBI
Being aware of symptoms post TBI is crucial to getting the appropriate medical treatment.
Should I Enter a Clinical Trial?
For people who are thinking about enrolling in a clinical trial — and their loved ones — learn the basics and more.
Martial Arts and Brain Injury
Learn more about “bumps to the head” and their possible future ramifications.
Understanding Clinical Trials: Frequently Asked Questions
Choosing to participate in a clinical trial may help you and many people after you. But it can be an overwhelming decision to make.
Glossary of Clinical Trials Terms
From "cohort" to "placebo," learn the terms needed to educate yourself about clinical trials.
Dr. Aditya Bhagwat: Importance of TBI Awareness
Before finding the best treatments, knowing what a TBI is exactly is crucial.
Dr. James Kelly: Making a Sound Diagnosis for Brain Injury
Making a good diagnosis for TBI involves taking thorough histories.
Choosing a Rehabilitation Hospital for Your Loved One
Learn what's important when choosing a rehab hospital for a loved one with TBI.
The Nuances of Neuroimaging
The eyes may be the window to the soul, but neuroimages — from DTI to fMRI — can tell us a lot about the brain.
Therapeutic Hypothermia for People with Brain Injury
Cooling people who have sustained a brain injury is not new therapy. But, it is getting more advanced, and the risks are minimal.
What Is Therapeutic Hypothermia?
Learn what therapeutic hypothermia is and how it can help people with a severe TBI immediately following the initial impact of injury.
Can Symptoms of TBI Show Up a Few Years After an Injury?
Learn how a TBI can play a role in a child’s motor skills and language development.
Types of Neuroimaging
Which MRIs are best? And what other imaging techniques are available for diagnosing TBI?
Why Are Girls More Likely to Sustain a TBI in Sports?
The hormonal and morphological structures in girls make them more vulnerable to TBIs than boys.
The Dangers and Misunderstandings of a Second TBI
Hear what happens to one young girl who has a minor TBI while snowboarding ... and a serious car crash months before.
Does Your Child Have a TBI — or Is It Something Else?
If there was no fall or accident to which to tie TBI symptoms, it is best to get your child a full neuropsychologic evaluation.
Basic Signs and Symptoms of TBI
Learn the basic signs and symptoms of a brain injury from loss of consciousness to changes in behavior.
Seeing the Right Specialist After a TBI
With any medical condition, it is crucial to see an expert in that field. This is particularly true with brain injury.
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
This animation gives an overview of the frequency of TBI — from causes and symptoms to available diagnostic imaging techniques and basic information on brain anatomy.
Cascade Effect of Single Axon Loss
This animation shows how neurons in the brain transfer information, and how those signals can fail if the neurons are broken or damaged.
This animation shows what steps are involved in a craniotomy — a surgical procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull, often performed to alleviate significant swelling of the brain.
Abnormal Brain CTs
This animation illustrates the differences between injured and uninjured brain tissue.
What's Forensic Neuropsychology?
Forensic neuropsychology focuses on data often used in legal settings. Learn more.
Testing Memory, Attention, Behavior, and Much More
A neuropsych evaluation after a brain injury covers wide ground from visual deficits to memory problems.
What Does a Neuropsychologist Do, Exactly?
Neuropsychologists look at the interplay between what a person's brain does and how he acts in his life -- emotionally, physically, socially, and so forth.
Early Neuropsych Evaluation Helps Formulate Rehab Plan
Results from a neurospychological exam conducted soon after a TBI will help formulate the rehabilitiation plan.
Use of Zoloft After Brain Injury
This drug does not prevent cognitive and behavioral problems after at TBI, but may help treat them.
Identifying Brain Injury in State Juvenile Justice, Corrections, and Homeless Populations
Learn about "undiagnosed TBI" and why it is a significant societal problem.
What Is Tau and Its Role in Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?
Tau protein shows up in the brain in other neurodegenerative diseases, but only in this unique, tangled pattern in CTE.
Pathology: Still the Most Useful Technique for Studying Diseased Brains
MRIs and CT scans are incredible technology, but pathology still provides an indispensable map, especially when studying a diseased brain.
What Is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy?
It doesn’t take an expert …anyone can see that they don’t want those brown, ugly spots on their brains.
“Brown Is Bad, Brown Is Cell Death.” Learn about the research behind chronic traumatic encephalopathy.
Educating Providers in Outside Programs About Traumatic Brain Injury
Service providers in programs like counseling or substance abuse need to know about a person's TBI and tailor pathways for success
Diagnostic Issues and Using Neuropsychological Reports
The second of a four-part podcast series for healthcare professionals who are NOT specialists in brain injury.
Strategies for and Modifications to Primary Care Clinical Practice to Effectively Accommodate Persons with TBI
The last of a four-part podcast series for healthcare professionals who are NOT specialists in brain injury.
Get Help and Education About a Loved One's TBI as Soon as Possible
A case manager's job is to help someone with TBI facilitate from one stage of treatment to the next.
Podcasts: Assisting Patients with TBI: A Brief Guide for Primary Care Physicians
A four-part series for healthcare professionals who are NOT specialists in brain injury.
The Role of Baseline Testing
Baseline neurocognitive assessment in sports is becoming more popular — and more useful for helping players better recover from one or more concussions.
"Mild TBI" Versus "Concussion": Reactions Based on Terminology
No need to add more stress and anxiety by using the term "mild brain injury" instead of "concussion."
What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale?
This standard scale measures levels of consciousness in a person following a brain injury. Learn how it works.
Peer Group Support Can Enhance Well-Being After Brain Injury
Peer group intervention helped improve depression scores and community integration.
Post-Traumatic Amnesia and Functional Outcome After Brain Injury
The longer the amnesia, the longer the recovery.
Feed Your Body, Feed Your Brain: Nutritional Tips to Speed Recovery
A hungry brain cannot function. Give it the food and nutrients it needs.
What Is Biofeedback and Neurofeedback?
Biofeedback has been shown to decrease anxiety responses after injury. Learn more.
Brain Injury Resource Directory
A national directory of TBI outpatient rehab, residential rehab, and general information services.
Child Brain Versus Adult Brain with Traumatic Brain Injury
Studies show that a child's brain is more vulnerable to the effects of a brain injury and takes longer to recover. Learn more.
Second Impact Syndrome in Children
What happens if a young athlete doesn't take the proper amount of time to recover after a concussion before sustaining another?
The Consequences of Shaken Baby Syndrome
An infant's brain is incredibly vulnerable to injury. The violent shaking of shaken baby syndrome can cause severe brain injury, disabling that child forever.
What’s Initiation Deficit?
Learn why it can be so difficult for people with brain injury to follow through with a plan or intention.
Why is Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Hard to Diagnose?
Making a connection between social and academic challenges and a past TBI can be crucial for a child's success.
What Factors Affect Outcome After a Brain Injury?
Everything affects the outcome after a TBI -- from the severity of the injury to the ongoing support of family, friends, and community.
Emotional and Behavioral Changes in Children After Brain Injury
Everything affects the outcome after a TBI -- from the severity of the injury to the ongoing support of family, friends, and community.
Common Problems Children Have After a Traumatic Brain Injury
Learn the signs and symptoms of a concussion or brain injury so you can get the best help for your child.
What Impact Can Age Have on a Child's Injury?
Learn what symptoms and signs to look for in your child with TBI -- whether the injury happened at 3 years of age, or 12 years.
Care for Brain Injury in the United States Versus Canada
Do the differences in short- and long-term care for TBI in these two countries make a difference in outcome?
How Can Physicians Best Help Families with Children with Brain Injury?
Especially with children with brain injury, health professionals need to think outside the "medical model."
Diagnosing Vision Problems After a Brain Injury
Figuring out the root of a child’s problems in school.
Does the Label “Concussion” Change Treatment?
Kids who are diagnosed with a “concussion” might not be getting the care they need.
Why Predicting Outcomes After Traumatic Brain Injury Can Be Limiting
Learn about someone who went from being in a fatal coma to becoming a professional athlete and educator.
What to Do If Your Child's Symptoms Are Not Abating
Oftentimes a child sustains a TBI but her CT or MRI scan shows nothing. If symptoms persist, seek out a specialist.
The Role of Imaging in Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
New imaging technology is helping show what's normal versus not normal development in a pediatric brain. Learn more.
What If Your MRI is "Clean" Post-Brain Injury?
An estimated 95 percent of people with TBI in the US leave the hospital with a clean CT or MRI scan. But what if symptoms continue to persist?
Targeting Teachers in Treating Brain Injury in Children
Ninety-nine percent of services kids will need after a TBI will be in the school setting. Teachers are key.
What Are the Latest Advancements in Imaging Techniques for Traumatic Brain Injury
Are neurons dying? What is the brain tissue doing? How is the blood flow in the brain? Learn what specialized imaging techniques can tell us.
What Is Diffuse Axonal Injury?
Learn more about how axons in the brain can be torn and sheared during an injury, interrupting communications within the brain.
What Imaging Techniques Are Used to Diagnose Traumatic Brain Injury?
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the standard imaging tool used to diagnose traumatic brain injury, but other tools are being developed to "see" more.
Research on the Impact of Age at Injury
Is a soldier — or civilian — at 18 going to recover better from a TBI than he will at 32? Find out what the research says.
Understanding TBI, Part 1: What Happens to the Brain During Injury and in the Early Stages of Recovery from TBI?
What exactly is a brain injury and what does recovery look like?
Understanding TBI, Part 2: Brain Injury Impact on Individual Functioning
Learn how an injury affects different regions of the brain.
Understanding TBI, Part 3: The Recovery Process
Learn about the stages of recovery after a TBI.
Getting Help After a Second Brain Injury
Neuropsychological testing can help identify impairments and treatment options.
¿Cuáles son las causas y los factores de riesgo para el traumatismo cerebral?
Las causas de la TBI pueden abarcar desde las caídas hasta los accidentes automovilísticos. Entérese más.
¿Qué cuidados médicos debe recibir un paciente con traumatismo cerebral?
Manera cómo el personal médico trata de estabilizar al paciente y de evaluar el nivel de conciencia.
¿Qué complicaciones inmediatas posteriores al trauma pueden ocurrir con traumatismo cerebral?
Hay distintas complicaciones médicas que puedan surgir como consecuencia de la lesión al cerebro.
Sleep Medications May Have Unwanted Side Effects
Some sleep medications cause cognitive problems post-TBI.
Hurricane Preparedness, an Oxymoron: Are You Ever Really Prepared?
For people with brain injury or other disabilities, natural disasters can be even more disastrous.
Severe TBI Can Impact the Cardiac System in Boys
Study shows that severe TBI in boys can affect heart rate.
Deep White Matter Volume Loss — One Predictor of Recovery in Children
WMV loss may be one indicator of brain injury severity.
Vision Issues After Brain Injury: BrainLine Talks with Dr. Gregory Goodrich
Vision problems are common after TBI since 40-50% of the brain is involved in vision.
What Is Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy – and What Should Athletes Know?
What is being done to help protect athletes from repetitive hits to the brain?
Traumatic Brain Injury in Prisons and Jails
Learn about this often underestimated correlation.
Traumatic Brain Injury: A Guide for Criminal Justice Professionals
These facts are often overlooked. Learn more.
Hemianopsia and Driving: Are We Asking the Right Questions?
The question really is "which people with hemianopsia can drive" not "can they?"
Scanning Training in Neurological Vision Loss
This paper discusses the need for comprehensive neurological vision rehab programs for returning troops with TBI and related visual problems.
Swallowing problems after a TBI can be life-threatening. Learn how to recognize, prevent, and treat them.
Revisiting the TBI and Gender Question After TBI
More research is needed to determine if men and women recover differently from brain injury.
Not All Nutritional Supplements Are Safe After Brain Injury
Nutritional supplements can have positive — and negative effects on short-term memory.
Help for Undiagnosed Brain Injury
A childhood fall can cause problems later.
Can Head Banging in Children Cause Brain Injury?
An unusual situation, but precautions should be taken to prevent TBI.
What Happens When a Brain Bleeds?
Learn the difference between subdural and epidural hematomas.
Do Men and Women Fare Differently After TBI?
Learn what researchers know — and still don't know.
The Pros and Cons of Taking Preventative Anti-Seizure Meds
Waiting or preventing: what’s the best choice?
Getting a Brain Injury Far from a Hospital
What do we do if we don’t live near a trauma center?
How Best to Deal with Professionals Following Brain Injury
Get the most from your legal and medical appointments.
The Importance of Staying Involved After TBI
Working or volunteering is good for the mind and body.
Interventions For Behavioral Problems After Brain Injury
Success in adapting to changes after injury depends greatly on support from your social network.
Biologically Based Practices: An Overview
How vitamins, minerals, proteins, whole diets, and more can help.
How to Deal with Conflicting Advice from Healthcare Professionals
Sorting through different opinions and advice after a brain injury can be hard.
Mind-Body Medicine: An Overview
An approach that treats the whole person.
Manipulative and Body-Based Practices: An Overview
Learn about massage therapy, the Feldenkrais method, chiropractic manipulation, and more.
The Specifics of Neuropsych Tests
Learn what you need to know — and ask for — from a neuropsych evaluation.
Cognitive Therapy Gave Me the Anchor I Needed
It wasn’t until six months after her car crash that this woman got the help she needed for her brain injury.
Caron Gan Talks About The Brain Injury Intervention Protocol
Learn what treatment should include.
Caron Gan Talks About Using Her Cultural Background to Her Advantage
This marriage and family therapist talks about her Chinese-Canadian heritage and how it comes into play in her everyday practice.
Caron Gan Talks About Being a Family Therapist
Learn about the work of a family therapist.
Working Towards Independence
What barriers can therapists encounter when working with families helping a loved one?
Dr. Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla Talks About Cultural Differences in Treatment of TBI
Do people from non-US cultures get treated differently after a TBI?
Dr. Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla Talks About Disparity of Care for Minorities
Why is cultural competency so important?
Dr. Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla Talks About the Importance of Family in Hispanic Culture
The role of family differs culture to culture.
Dr. Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla Talks About Differences Between Caucasians and Minorities in TBI Cases
In what ways are these ethnic groups treated the same or differently?
Using Biomarkers to Detect Traumatic Brain Injury
Is there — or will there be — a simple blood test to detect TBI?
Dr. Jeffrey Bazarian Talks About Treatment of TBI in the Emergency Department
What happens when you arrive in the ER with a brain injury?
Dr. Jeffrey Bazarian Talks About What Interested him About Traumatic Brain Injury
What got this emergency physician interested in traumatic brain injury?
When to Go to the Hospital
Even a seemingly minor bump on the head can be dangerous.
Treating the Patient and Avoiding Stove Piping
BrainLine talks with Dr. Maria Mouratidis about the treating the patient and avoiding stove piping.
10 Things to Know About Evaluating Medical Resources on the Web
Who can you trust on the web?
What Is CAM?
Learn about complementary and alternative medicine.
Are You Considering Using CAM?
What complementary and alternative medicine can offer.
Selecting a CAM Practitioner
Find the right specialist.
Does Hypothermia Help Protect an Injured Brain?
Looking at ways to decrease pressure in the brain.
Neurologist James Kelly and NHL Great Pat LaFontaine: Cranial Nerve Test
Watch what this test entails.
Neurologist James Kelly and NHL Great Pat LaFontaine: Neuropsychology Test
See what kinds of skills are involved.
After the Injury: Acute Care and TBI
Information on the medical care provided following a TBI — from the first moments in an ER to the collaboration between the family and medical team to create and individual treatment plan.
Caregiving and TBI: What You Need to Know
BrainLine's webcast "Caregiving and TBI: What You Need to Know" offers ideas and strategies for people caring for a loved one with TBI.
Therapy for your CEO: Executive Function Therapy
For someone with TBI, what happens when standard rehabilitation techniques like physical or occupational therapy come to an end?
BrainLine Talks with Dr. Nathan Zasler About Diagnosis and Care After TBI
Dr. Zasler offers advice about recovery strategies after sustaining a brain injury.
Diffusion Tensor Imaging
New neuro-imaging may give more specific information post-TBI.
The Role of Race, Ethnicity, and TBI
Why are African-Americans less satisfied with life one year post-TBI than other ethnic groups?
Realizing the Extent of the TBI
How much insight do people have about their limitations?
An Interview with Joseph Giacino, PhD
Learn about the needs and care of individuals with disorders of consciousness.
The Benefits of Exercise After TBI
Learn why strength begets strength, especially after TBI.
TBI Screening Tool
This tool can provide you with questions to ask when screening for a TBI, but remember that the interview should flow like a natural dialogue between you and the patient.
The National Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury Plan
Learn more about the National Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury plan.
Whole Medical Systems: An Overview
From homeopathy to acupuncture — approaches that may help the body heal itself.
Energy Medicine: An Overview
Techniques to help the body and mind.
ASHA Podcast: Kathy Manning on Traumatic Brain Injury
Listen to Kathy Manning, a speech language pathologist, discuss speech issues post-TBI.
Michael Paul Mason Talks About What Happens to People Post-TBI
BrainLine got the chance to catch up with Michael Paul Mason to talk about what happens to people after they sustain a TBI.
Heads Up Concussion Information for Physicians
This audio information from the Centers for Disease Control can help physicians work with their patients with concussion.
Acute Concussion Evaluation (ACE) Test
This screening tool can be used for the initial evaluation and diagnosis of people who have or may have had a concussion.
What Impact Will Mild TBI Have on a Person's Life?
Follow-up medical attention is crucial as symptoms can often go undetected.
Repetitive Head Injury Syndrome
One brain injury can be catastrophic, but multiple injuries can be life-changing, even fatal.
What is the Course of Treatment Post-TBI?
Awareness and education are essential when it comes to treating brain injury.
Who Are the Rehab Specialists?
This resource is a glossary that describes the different types of rehabilitation specialists.
Traumatic Brain Injury Among Prisoners
Data suggest that the prevalence of a TBI history for prisoners may be as high as 10 times that of the general population.
Brain Injury: Common Tests and Procedures
Information about common tests and procedures for people who have sustained a TBI.
Brain Injury: Complications and Medical Problems
Learn what can go wrong during hospitalization.
Complications: Swelling or Edema and Contractures
Learn how to prevent and manage swelling and contractures after a TBI.
Complications: Deep Vein Thrombosis
When blood moves slowly, it can develop a deep vein thrombosis, or clot. Learn more about preventing possible blood clots after TBI.
Severity of Brain Injury
Every brain injury is unique, but what do these levels of severity really mean?
Traumatic Brain Injury: Future Assessment Tools and Treatment Prospects
Using imaging to assess TBI.
TBI Consumer Report: Long-Term Post-TBI Health Problems
Learn about related health problems like depression, thyroid problems, and headaches.
Aerobic Exercise Following TBI
Exercise for people with TBI has enormous benefits — both physically and mentally.
Heads Up: Brain Injury in Your Practice Toolkit
An indispensible toolkit for physicians.
Oxygen is our lifeblood. Learn how a decrease of oxygen supply to the brain can occur after TBI.
TBI Research Review: Unidentified Brain Injury
Sometimes people don't realize that problems like poor memory or behavioral changesa are a result of a "hidden" TBI.
My Invisible Disability
One young man's story of how he brought light to tragedy.
Traumatic Brain Injury in Prisons: A Review
Do the majority of people in prison have brain injuries?
Integration of Neuropsychology in Educational Planning Following Traumatic Brain Injury
Educators need to know what to look for and how to help students with TBI.
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Brain Injury, Cerebral Palsy, and Stroke
A guide on the strengths and limitations of HBOT for people with TBI.