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Thinking / Cognitive Symptoms

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Many people have sustained a concussion and walked away only to later find that their lives are somehow different after the injury. They may not realize that their changes in mood, behavior, and thinking abilities may have been altered by TBI. Because these invisible impairments tend to go undetected, they can often plague a person's life for weeks, months, or even years.

After a brain injury occurs, a number of cognitive symptoms can occur right away, while others can arise long after the injury.

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Traumatic Brain Injury – A Lifetime of Recovery
April 4, 2016
I am a very average “TBI Guy.” I have ongoing memory challenges. Word-finding challenges and aphasia are my constant companions. Add a splash of vertigo and half a cup of tinnitus and you have the perfect recipe for a pretty average post-concussive life. And amazingly, today I am okay with that...

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BrainSTARS: Organization
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | October 1, 2013
Parents and teachers of students with organizational weaknesses from TBI need to help them set up and maintain organizational systems.

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BrainSTARS: Planning
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | October 1, 2013
For kids with TBI who have trouble with planning, adult help is often required to anticipate and organize events, projects, and chores.

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Level of Executive Functioning Related to Outcome Post-TBI
By: BrainLine | Research Update | April 29, 2013
Measuring outcome after TBI can be tricky, but oftentimes the state of the injured person’s cognitive abilities can shed the most light.

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BrainSTARS: Mental Flexibility
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | February 1, 2013
A child who is not mentally flexible has trouble responding appropriately to changes in routine. Here are some options for success.

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What About Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy?
By: Janet Brown, MA CCC-SLP | June 5, 2012
CRT may be like the proverbial elephant — it feels different to different people depending on their circumstances and perspective. But, it may be essential to quality of life for people with TBI.

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BrainSTARS: Initiation
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | November 9, 2011
When a student has trouble putting his thoughts into action he is probably not “unmotivated,” “disinterested,” or “lazy.”

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BrainSTARS: Praxis
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | November 8, 2011
People with "praxis" means having difficulty with active motor planning. Motor sequences, which were once automatic, need to be relearned.

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BrainSTARS: Expressive Language
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | November 8, 2011
Children with expressive language difficulties need help participating in social and academic activities. Learn more.

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BrainSTARS: Non-Verbal Learning
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | November 8, 2011
Children with a nonverbal learning disorder lacks ability to learn and generalize from everyday experiences. Learn more.

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A Guide to Neuropsychological Testing
By: Jeffrey Kreutzer, PhD and Victoria Powell, PhD | October 27, 2011
Neuropsychological testing can help you and your doctors better understand your injury and plan for the most effective therapy.

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BrainSTARS
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | September 9, 2011
BrainSTARS offers many short articles for teachers and parents to help their child make the leap back into life following a brain injury.

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BrainSTARS: Word Retrieval
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | September 9, 2011
Learn how to help students with brain injury find the words they are looking for — at home and at school.

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BrainSTARS: Judgement
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | September 9, 2011
Poor judgement is a result of thinking problems, and is not intentional.

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BrainSTARS: Mental Processing Speed
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | September 9, 2011
Accommodate a child with TBI's slow mental processing with environmental supports. You will see the difference!

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BrainSTARS: New Learning
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | September 9, 2011
Use classroom performance, not global scores on intelligence and achievement testing, as your guide to instructional objectives and modifications for kids with TBI.

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BrainSTARS: Attention
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | September 9, 2011
Remember that your child or student does not choose to not pay attention. Here are tips for parents and teachers to help.

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Recommendations for Cognitive Rehabilitation for People with TBI
By: BrainLine | Research Update | June 13, 2011
Studies support the effectiveness of cognitive rehab after a brain injury.

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Men and Women Fare the Same Cognitively After Brain Injury
By: BrainLine | Research Update | February 14, 2011
Outcome after a brain injury looks about the same in men and women.

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Post-Acute Adult Continuing Education After TBI
By: Stacy Levesque, MA, CCC-SLP, CBIS, Justin Moses, CBIS, Hector Gutierrez, CBIST, and Christin Moses | September 1, 2010
Cognitive rehabilitation is crucial for enhancing the lives of people with brain injury.

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Cognitive Problems After Traumatic Brain Injury
By: Dawn Neumann, PhD and Anthony Lequerica, PhD | April 1, 2010
Learn what cognitive challenges can come with a TBI and how to improve upon them.

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Brain Basics
By: Brian King | January 15, 2010
The brain is incredibly complex — take an interactive journey to see how the brain works and what impact an injury can have.

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Help for Undiagnosed Brain Injury
By: Dr. Celeste Campbell | Ask the Expert | December 1, 2009
A childhood fall can cause problems later.

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Internet-Based Cognitive Rehabilitation
By: BrainLine | Research Update | October 1, 2009
Can instant messaging help people with brain injury?

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Cognitive Rehabilitation for Children and Youth
By: Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa, PhD | BrainLine Kids | August 1, 2009
Why collaborative partnerships work.

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Why So Many Questions?
By: Janet Brown | Ask the Expert | July 1, 2009
How to help when your loved one keeps repeating herself.

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Disaster Readiness Tips for People with Developmental or Cognitive Difficulties
By: National Organization on Disabilities | June 23, 2009
It's important to take steps to prepare before a disaster occurs, especially if you have a brain injury.

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Memory and Brain Injury
By: The University of Washington TBI Model System and the University of Washington Medical Center | June 19, 2009
Good ideas for improving your memory.

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Initiation, Planning, Organization, and Brain Injury
By: The University of Washington TBI Model System and the University of Washington Medical Center | June 19, 2009
How to get up, get going, and follow through with your plans.

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Where Are My Keys?
By: Elaine Phillips | Ask the Expert | June 1, 2009
Helpful strategies to keep track of your belongings.

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Measuring Cognitive Fatigue After TBI
Research Update | May 5, 2009
The brain may work harder post-injury.

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Attention and Brain Injury
By: The University of Washington TBI Model System and the University of Washington Medical Center | January 1, 2009
Ideas to improve focus and concentration.

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Realizing the Extent of the TBI
By: BrainLine | Research Update | January 1, 2009
How much insight do people have about their limitations?

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Remembering to Take Action
By: Dr. Celeste Campbell | Ask the Expert | January 1, 2009
Guidance on helping a friend follow through on his commitments.

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Hoja de información: Cuidando a los adultos con deterioro cognitivo y de la memoria
By: Family Caregiver Alliance | Spanish | July 25, 2008
Para las personas que sobreviven a un traumatismo craneal, son frecuentes los cambios de personalidad, el déficit de la memoria o el discernimiento, la falta de control sobre los impulsos y la baja capacidad de concentración.

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Caring for Adults with Cognitive and Memory Impairments
By: Family Caregiver Alliance | July 25, 2008
Changes in thinking skills after a TBI often present special challenges for caregivers.

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Impaired Cognition: Frequently Asked Questions
By: Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago-Brain Injury Team | January 1, 2008
Learn more about cognition and what happens when it is impaired after a TBI.

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Learning to Remember
By: Sarah Raskin, PhD | January 1, 2008
Memory, one of the most important human functions, is often damaged after at TBI.

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Exercise and Your Brain
By: Craig Hospital | January 1, 2008
Don't let your brain get flabby! Learn why exercising your brain is crucial for maintaining and improving cognition.

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TBI Consumer Report: Peer Mentoring
By: Mount Sinai Medical Center | January 1, 2008
Feel like nobody understands what you're going through?

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Social Communication and TBI
By: Craig Hospital | January 1, 2008
Do you have a hard time communicating with your friends, family, or co-workers?

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Managing Memory and Metamemory Impairments in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury
By: Mary Kennedy | October 17, 2006
Learn what steps to take to improve your memory after a brain injury.

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Now What Did I Come In Here For? Strategies for Remembering What You’re Looking For
By: The National Resource Center for Traumatic Brain Injury, Virginia Commonwealth Model Systems of Care | January 1, 2005
Forgetting what you are looking for is common problem after TBI. Here are some suggestions.


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