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Behavioral & Emotional Symptoms

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Depending on what part or parts of a person's brain are injured, the individual may experience significant behavioral and emotional changes. The frontal lobe, for example, helps govern personality and impulsivity. If damaged, there might be no "braking mechanism" for self-control. A person may find he cannot control his anger or aggression. He may also make inappropriate comments to friends or strangers not realizing they are off color.

Or the opposite might happen -- someone's personality may become muted or seemingly emotionless. This is called "flat affect."

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Survival Tips for the Holidays with a Brain Injury
By: Linda W. Arms | October 21, 2016
With an injured brain, the holiday season can burden us with more fatigue, more stress and perhaps some sad emotions. We will be able to enjoy ourselves much more if we prepare ourselves for the holiday season.   Here are some tips that work for me since my brain injury

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Reaching Back in Time – a Message to My Younger Self
August 1, 2016
Summer is such a fun time of year. In fact, it’s my favorite season. What better time of year than to talk about suicide?

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The Loneliest Season
December 22, 2014
"The truth is I was so lonely I was worried I was going crazy. At night, I would close my eyes and silently speak to the husband who no longer existed," writes caregiver Abby Maslin.

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Letting Your Adolescent with TBI Have Independence with Limits
BrainLine Kids | May 2, 2014
Clinical psychologist Mariann Young talks about how parents need to let their injured adolescent still be an adolescent while setting limits and creating a structure to keep the child safe.

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The Risks of Wanting to Fit In as a Teen with TBI
BrainLine Kids | May 2, 2014
"Kids with TBI are desperate to fit in with their peers, which can make them incredibly vulnerable," says clinical psychologist Mariann Young.

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The Importance of Getting Your Teenager with TBI to Join a Support Group
By: Jeanne Dise-Lewis, PhD | Ask the Expert | December 30, 2013
It’s hard to get teenagers to do anything they fear will make them feel “other,” but a TBI support group will help during recovery.

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Measuring Empathy and Sensitivity to Emotion in Adults Who Had a TBI in Childhood
Research Update | November 4, 2013
In this study, researchers looked at the long-term effects of emotional sensitivity in adults who had sustained a TBI as children.

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Even Small Improvements Post-Brain Injury Can Help the Body and the Mind
By: Elliot Roth, MD | Ask the Expert | October 28, 2013
Rehabilitation to help with functional skills may help with depression as well.

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What Is the "Concussion Dilemma"?
By: Jeanne Dise-Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids, Ask the Expert | October 7, 2013
What type of parental response will best assure a child’s complete recovery from a concussion?

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Finding Validation in Support Groups After a Brain Injury
September 19, 2013
Dr. Herman Lukow talks about how support groups and club houses can help people with TBI find common ground as well as a place to learn to socialize successfully again.

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Tapping into Skills of Resilience After a Brain Injury
September 19, 2013
Dr. Herman Lukow talks about learning new ways to face challenges after a brain injury.

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The Positive Pessimist and Redefining Success After Brain Injury
September 19, 2013
Dr. Herman Lukow says that a person who was a pessimist before his injury will probably remain so after his injury, but by finding new interests and small jobs, positivity can slip in one step at a time.

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Helping People with TBI Redefine Independence
September 19, 2013
Dr. Herman Lukow talks about helping people celebrate their small successes like being able to get involved in an activity they like or riding the bus to town.

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What Is the TBI Model Systems' Resilience Adjustment Inventory?
September 19, 2013
Dr. Herman Lukow talks about the importance of studying resilience and the myriad tools to strengthen it in people with brain injury.

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What Physical and Cognitive Rest Really Mean After a Concussion
August 30, 2013
Dr. Robert Cantu talks about how after a concussion the brain is in a metabolic crisis and, without rest, that crisis is exacerbated.

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The Four "Baskets" of Concussion Symptoms
BrainLine Kids | August 30, 2013
Dr. Robert Cantu explains the four "baskets" of concussion symptoms parents should know about: emotional, cognitive, sleep, and physical.

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What Is "Systematic Desensitization" and How Can It Help People with TBI?
By: Jacqueline Borg, PhD | Ask the Expert,BrainLine Kids | August 26, 2013
Sometimes it takes baby steps to help someone with TBI make successful changes in their routines.

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Tackling Social Challenges for Children with TBI
BrainLine Kids | August 9, 2013
Hospital Executive Amy Mansue talks about how rehab specialists can help kids with TBI and their families deal with the social challenges that can arise soon after the injury, but often more importantly, months or years after the injury.

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How to Help People Who Have Trouble Coping with Their Brain Injury
Research Update | July 22, 2013
Early screening for alexithymia following TBI might identify those most at risk of having difficulty coping.

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Learning to Minimize Risky Behaviors for Teens with TBI
BrainLine Kids | July 2, 2013
Dr. Juliet Haarbauer-Krupa talks about education and effective programs to help teens with TBI make positive choices.

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Helping Teens with TBI Use Social Media Appropriately
BrainLine Kids | July 2, 2013
Posting an inappropriate message on Facebook or inundating friends with texts can be social media pitfalls for any teen, especially those with a brain injury.

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Ritualistic Behavior After a Brain Injury
By: Celeste Campbell, PsyD | Ask the Expert | June 24, 2013
Ritualistic behavior after a TBI is often associated with feelings of lack of control.

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Why Does Everything Seem So Surreal After Brain Injury?
By: Emilie Godwin, PhD | Ask the Expert | June 24, 2013
Some people with TBI may experience “depersonalization” and/or “derealization.” Read on to learn more.

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Anger Following Brain Injury
By: Tedd Judd, Ph.D. | June 4, 2013
Anger is a very common problem after a brain injury. Learn how to understand and deal with different kinds of anger.

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What Is Emotional Flooding?
By: Jacqueline Borg, PhD | Ask the Expert,BrainLine Kids | June 3, 2013
An injured brain needs rest. Without it, even the most mundane activities can overwhelm someone with TBI.

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What Are the Signs and Symptoms of TBI?
By: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke | May 20, 2013
Symptoms of a TBI can be mild, moderate, or severe, depending on the extent of the damage to the brain.

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The Most Costly, Least Effective Treatment for Brain Injury
February 14, 2013
Sadly, the biggest single institutional provider for "treatment" for people with substance abuse, serious mental health disorders, and brain injuries are our jails.

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BrainSTARS: Receptive Language
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | February 1, 2013
The difficulty learning from language alone may make it appear as if the child with TBI is not listening.

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BrainSTARS: Mental Flexibility
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | February 1, 2013
A child who is not mentally flexible has trouble responding appropriately to changes in routine. Here are some options for success.

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BrainSTARS: Regulation of Emotion
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | January 31, 2013
During calm moments, teach your child some alternate strategies to use when she is angry or frustrated.

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BrainSTARS: Self-Regulation
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | January 25, 2013
Remember that disruptive behavior is always more likely when a child is tired or in a situation that is stimulating, unstructured, or confusing.

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"If You've Seen One Brain Injury, You've Seen ONE Brain Injury"
January 8, 2013
When Dr. Taryn Stejskal meets with couples, first she listens to their story then works with them to form strategies that work for their individual issues.

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The Many Benefits of Family or Couples Therapy After TBI
January 8, 2013
Family or couples therapy after a TBI can help with strategies but can also address some of the issues the family or couple may have had prior to the injury.

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The Importance of Constituent-Specific TBI Support Groups
January 8, 2013
Joining a TBI support group with others dealing specifically with the same issues can make a world of difference.

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The Process of Dealing with Loss and Grief After a Brain Injury
January 8, 2013
Sometimes people come to think of acceptance as a dirty word, but learning to grieve for the old person and embrace the new one post injury is crucial.

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Brookhaven Hospital Helping People with Neurobehavioral Syndrome
November 7, 2012
Brookhaven, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, often has patients with TBI and a history of co-morbid issues like PTSD, depression, personality disorder, and severe behavioral problems.

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Study to Determine Lifetime Prevalence of Brain Injury Among Prisoners
By: BrainLine | Research Update | October 9, 2012
A substantial proportion of prisoners reported having experienced a TBI during their lifetime, something that could impact their success once released.

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Understanding Your Child's Behavior After a Severe Brain Injury
By: Jeanne Dise-Lewis, PhD | Ask the Expert,BrainLine Kids | September 25, 2012
As children with severe TBI move from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, their needs and wants change; behavior problems can serve the function of drawing attention to a changing need.

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The Capgras Delusion: You Are Not My Wife!
By: Jenni Ogden, PhD | September 11, 2012
Injury to the brain can result in a person believing close relatives are imposters. This phenomenon is called the Capgras Delusion.

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Study Suggests "Anger Self-Management Training" Is Beneficial After Brain Injury
By: BrainLine | Research Update | August 7, 2012
People who have both problematic anger and cognitive impairment after TBI may benefit from specific psychoeducational treatment.

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What You Need to Know: Symptoms of Concussion
By: BrainLine | June 11, 2012
The signs and symptoms of concussion are evident soon after the traumatic event, while you may only become aware of others days or weeks later.

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How to Deal with a New, Angrier Version of a Beloved Husband and Father?
By: Emilie Godwin, PhD | Ask the Expert | April 30, 2012
Family counseling is crucial to help everyone deal with the emotional effects of a brain injury.

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Monitoring Athletes Symptoms After a Concussion: Verbal Questions or Written Questionnaires?
By: BrainLine | Research Update | February 13, 2012
What is the most effective way to track recovery from concussions in athletes?

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Planning Ahead After a Brain Injury is Related To Better Outcomes
By: BrainLine | Research Update | November 28, 2011
Learn why it's better to "plan" than "avoid" after a brain injury.

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BrainSTARS: Adolescent Self-Regulation
By: Jeanne E. Dise-Lewis, PhD, Margaret Lohr Calvery, PhD, and Hal C. Lewis, PhD | BrainLine Kids | November 8, 2011
Despite their age, adolescents with self-regulation difficulties after brain injury require the amount of supervision and structure typically provided for younger children.

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Everything You Wanted to Know About Counseling After Brain Injury But Were Afraid to Ask
By: Katy Wilder Schaaf, PhD, Lillian Flores Stevens, PhD, and Stephen Smith, PhD | October 27, 2011
Life after a brain injury can be overwhelming for both the survivor and family members. Learn how counseling can help.

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If I Look So Good, Why Do I Feel So Bad?
By: Jeffrey Kreutzer, PhD | October 27, 2011
The fact that brain injury is often an invisible injury can be painful. Learn how to react to people's questions and comments.

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Recognizing Other People’s Facial Expressions Can Be Hard for People with Brain Injury
By: BrainLine | Research Update | September 6, 2011
An inability to perceive others’ emotions can make communication and social interactions difficult.

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Why Do Some People Develop Psychiatric Disorders After a Brain Injury?
By: BrainLine | Research Update | August 15, 2011
Psychiatric disorders are common and often debilitating after a brain injury. Learn who is more at risk.

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Stress Management: How to Reduce, Prevent, and Cope with Stress
By: Helpguide.org | June 15, 2011
Stress affects everyone, but it can be worse for people with a brain injury. Here are some indispensable, general strategies.

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Mental Illness and Brain Injury Are Not a Dual Diagnosis
By: BrainLine | June 9, 2011
Often, behavioral and emotional symptoms are a result of a TBI and should be treated as such.

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Why Is Depression the Number One Symptom After a Brain Injury?
By: BrainLine | June 9, 2011
Some 20-60% of people with a TBI experience depression soon after the injury or even years later. Learn why it's so prevalent.

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When Depression Is Not Depression After a TBI
By: BrainLine | June 9, 2011
Fatigue, problems with sleep or concentration, and lack of energy or interest may be their own symptoms, not depression.

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Make Sure to Get Appropriate Help and Treatment After a TBI
By: BrainLine | June 9, 2011
Being aware of symptoms post TBI is crucial to getting the appropriate medical treatment.

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Learn Why Aggression, Irritability, and Depression Are Common After Brain Injury
By: BrainLine | June 9, 2011
Changes in or damage to the brain make emotional and behavioral issues common after a TBI.

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Stress Symptoms in Relatives After Severe Brain Injury
By: BrainLine | Research Update | June 7, 2011
Post-traumatic stress can affect a person’s family members, too.

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Traumatic Brain Injury Among Homeless Persons
By: Healthcare for the Homeless Clinicians' Network | May 19, 2011
Information on improving the ability to identify, assess, diagnose, treat, house, and create aftercare services for homeless people with TBI.

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Coping Skills and Self-Esteem Are Important After a TBI
By: BrainLine | Research Update | April 18, 2011
A study looking at the implications of self-esteem and recovery after a TBI.

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What Does a Neuropsychologist Do, Exactly?
By: BrainLine | February 7, 2011
Neuropsychologists look at the interplay between what a person's brain does and how he acts in his life -- emotionally, physically, socially, and so forth.

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Normal Tantrum or Signs of a Brain Injury?
By: Dr. Jane Gillett | Ask the Expert,BrainLine Kids | February 7, 2011
How parents can work with their child’s doctor and school in case of an undiagnosed brain injury.

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Hallucinations and Delusions After a Brain Injury
By: Brian D. Greenwald, MD | Ask the Expert | January 17, 2011
Can certain medication, social isolation — or both — cause psychiatric problems for someone with a TBI?

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Flat Affect and Brain Injury
By: Dr. Celeste Campbell | Ask the Expert | November 15, 2010
A brain injury can sometimes limit a person’s ability to express emotions — temporarily or permanently.

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Comorbid Emotional and Behavioral Conditions of TBI
By: TIRR Memorial Hermann | November 11, 2010
The third of a four-part podcast series for healthcare professionals who are NOT specialists in brain injury.

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Understanding Everybody's Behavior After Brain Injury: Don't "Don't"
By: Harvey E. Jacobs, PhD | October 13, 2010
Behavior can be one of brain injury’s most perplexing challenges. Learn more.

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Why Does My Wife Ask the Same Questions Over and Over?
By: Elaine Phillips | Ask the Expert | October 1, 2010
Learn what perseveration is and how to cope after a brain injury.

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Effects of Psychological and Biomechanical Trauma on Brain and Behavior
By: Thomas W. McAllister and Murray B. Stein | October 1, 2010
Learn more about combat-related psychological and biochemical trauma.

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The Emotional Consequences of Concussion
By: Brainline | BrainLine Kids | July 29, 2010
Lots of rest, sleep, and reduced stress are crucial for a child recovering from a mild TBI.

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Back to School After a Concussion
By: Pat Sublette, Oregon TBI Education Coordinator | BrainLine Kids | July 1, 2010
Addressing cognitive, academic, or behavioral issues in students with TBI early will help with school success.

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Why Has My Sister's Personality Changed Since Her Traumatic Brain Injury?
By: Dr. Celeste Campbell | Ask the Expert | July 1, 2010
Emotional regulation can be challenging after a brain injury.

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Emotional and Behavioral Changes in Children After Brain Injury
By: BrainLine.org | BrainLine Kids | June 8, 2010
Everything affects the outcome after a TBI -- from the severity of the injury to the ongoing support of family, friends, and community.

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Risky Behaviors and Brain Injury
By: Michael Paul Mason | Ask the Expert | June 1, 2010
Therapeutic intervention can change lives.

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Emotional Problems After Traumatic Brain Injury
By: Tessa Hart, PhD and Keith Cicerone, PhD | April 1, 2010
Emotional changes can be very tricky after a brain injury -- for the injured person and his family.

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Working to Improve Emotional Processing After Brain Injury
By: BrainLine | Research Update | February 1, 2010
Treatment may help people with TBI decipher emotional clues.

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Seasonal Affective Disorder and Brain Injury
By: Dr. Celeste Campbell | Ask the Expert | December 1, 2009
Research is not conclusive, but we do know that the risk of mood disorders increases.

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Motivation After a TBI
By: Dr. Celeste Campbell | Ask the Expert | July 1, 2009
Behavior can change after a TBI. Learn the causes and how to help.

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Interventions For Behavioral Problems After Brain Injury
By: Carrie Beatty, CBIS | June 22, 2009
Success in adapting to changes after injury depends greatly on support from your social network.

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Building Relationships and Overcoming Loneliness
By: Jeffrey Kreutzer and Laura Taylor | June 19, 2009
A brain injury doesn't mean you have to be alone. Take this self-assessment and learn skills to connect with people.

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Coping with Loss and Change
By: Laura Taylor and Jeffrey Kreutzer | June 19, 2009
Rate yourself and learn some helpful tips for life after brain injury.

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Managing Crises and Stress Effectively
By: Laura Taylor and Jeffrey Kreutzer | June 19, 2009
Remember: no one is immune, but these strategies may help.

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Managing Intense Feelings
By: Laura Taylor and Jeffrey Kreutzer, and Taryn Stejskal | June 19, 2009
Learn how to use your emotions to your advantage.

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Recognizing Others' Emotions After TBI
By: BrainLine | Research Update | June 1, 2009
A difficult skill to teach.

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BrainLine Talks with Dr. Jeffrey Kreutzer and Dr. Taryn Stejskal About Teaching and Maintaining Positivity and Hope
May 27, 2009
Having an optimistic outlook can make all the difference during recovery.

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Neuroanatomy of Behavior After Brain Injury
By: Joanne M. McGee, PhD | May 20, 2009
You don't like my behavior? You'll have to discuss that with my brain directly.

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Who Me? Self-Esteem for People with Disabilities
By: Ryan J. Voigt, MA | May 11, 2009
How to view yourself in a positive light.

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Postponing Gratification
By: BrainLine | Research Update | May 7, 2009
Controlling impulsivity can be difficult for people with TBI.

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Emotional and Physical Recovery Are Two Different Things
By: Jeffrey Kreutzer and Victoria Powell | May 5, 2009
Helping to heal the whole person.

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Dr. Tedd Judd Talks Incorporating Brain Injury and Cultural Background
April 29, 2009
The more doctors or therapists know about the background and traditions of their patients, the more effective they will be.

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Dr. Tedd Judd Talks About Understanding Behavior Changes with TBI
April 29, 2009
Emotional and behavioral changes in a person after a TBI can be significant.

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Caron Gan Talks About Working With Adolescents After Brain Injury
BrainLine Kids | April 29, 2009
Adolescence is never easy. Hear how this family therapist works with young adults with TBI.

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Caron Gan Talks About Spouses After Injury
April 29, 2009
Hear what this marriage and family therapist has to say.

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Behavior and Personality Changes After TBI
April 29, 2009
Why is my loved one's behavior and personality suddenly different?

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Educating Families About Behavioral Changes
April 29, 2009
TBI affects the whole family. Hear advice from a family therapist.

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Socializing Safely After TBI
By: Carolyn Rocchio | Ask the Expert | April 29, 2009
Helping an adult child move toward independence comes with risks.

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The Nuances of Self-Awareness Post-TBI
By: BrainLine | Research Update | April 1, 2009
A person's level of self-awareness after a brain injury can impact rehab.

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Anger: Managing Intense Emotions
By: Taryn M. Stejskal and Jeff Kreutzer, The National Resource Center for Traumatic Brain Injury, Virginia Commonwealth Model Systems of Care | March 31, 2009
Why is anger so hard to handle after TBI?

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Handling Behavior
By: The Beach Center on Disability | BrainLine Kids | March 31, 2009
What are the most effective ways to deal with challenging behavior in kids?

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Ain't Misbehaving
By: Harvey Jacobs, PhD | March 31, 2009
Understanding the meaning behind difficult behavior.

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Differences in Expressing Emotion After Brain Injury
March 4, 2009
BrainLine talks with Dr. Maria Mouratidis about differences in expressing emotion after injury.

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Understanding Behavior
By: Beach Center on Disability, University of Kansas | March 2, 2009
Learn how the A-B-C Chart for challenging behavior can help you.

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Reducing Restraint and Seclusion of Individuals with TBI
January 26, 2009
Learn about the issues and behavioral challenges of individuals with TBI and the concerns about using seclusion and restraint on these individuals.

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Positive Effects on Mood After Exercise
By: BrainLine | Research Update | January 1, 2009
Learn how physical activity affects mood for people with TBI.

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Brain Injury, Social Skills, and the Holidays
By: Carolyn Rocchio | Ask the Expert | December 1, 2008
Carolyn Rocchio offers advice to prepare someone with a TBI for holiday party interactions with family and friends.

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Brain Injury, Behavioral Challenges, and the Holidays
By: Carolyn Rocchio | Ask the Expert | December 1, 2008
Worried about your loved one's behavior during the holidays?

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Making Connections After Brain Injury: A Guide for Social Peer Mentors
By: The Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Community Integration of Persons with Traumatic Brain Injury | November 3, 2008
A resource for social peer mentors.

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Social Communication and TBI
By: Craig Hospital | January 1, 2008
Do you have a hard time communicating with your friends, family, or co-workers?

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Breaking the Silence: Violence as a Cause and a Consequence of Traumatic Brain Injury
By: Jean Langlois, ScD, MPH | January 1, 2008
Ever wonder about the overlap between TBI and violence?

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TBI Consumer Report: Peer Mentoring
By: Mount Sinai Medical Center | January 1, 2008
Feel like nobody understands what you're going through?

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Impaired Cognition: Frequently Asked Questions
By: Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago-Brain Injury Team | January 1, 2008
Learn more about cognition and what happens when it is impaired after a TBI.

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Brain Injury: Why Does My Loved One Act Out?
By: Jodi Burgard | January 1, 2008
Learn more about the emotional and behavioral changes after a brain injury.

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TBI Consumer Report: Coping with Post-TBI Emotional Distress
By: Mount Sinai Medical Center | January 1, 2007
Learn why depression and anxiety are common after TBI.

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How to Clean Up Stinking Thinking and Cope Better
By: Lee Livingston and Jeff Kreutzer | January 1, 2005
Turn your negative thoughts into hopeful ones.

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Behavioral Considerations Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury
By: Joan Mayfield | BrainLine Kids | January 1, 2005
Children with TBI need tailored care in the classroom.

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Memory Matters: How and Where Can I Meet New Friends or People to Date?
By: The National Resource Center for Traumatic Brain Injury, Virginia Commonwealth Model Systems of Care | January 1, 2005
Having a hard time making friends? You are not alone. Try these strategies.

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Understanding Your Emotions
By: Laura Taylor and Jeff Kreutzer | January 1, 2004
It's common — and understandable — to feel overwhelmed after a TBI.

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TBI Research Review: Post-TBI Depression
By: Mount Sinai Medical Center | January 1, 2004
Learn more about how depression and brain injury are connected.

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Management of Behavioral Problems During Acute Rehabilitation of Individuals with TBI
By: Tom Novack, PhD | January 1, 2002
Behaviorial issues can be significant challenges to rehab staff.

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El enojo después de lesión cerebral
By: Dr. Tedd Judd, Ph.D., Neuropsicólogo Clínico | Spanish | January 1, 1992
El enojo es un problema muy común que sobreviene a una lesión cerebral. Aprenda a comprender y a tratar los diferentes tipos de ira.


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